Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos

 

1517.
107-1717 MARCHASNTIIDAE Saturday

 

Justice Barnes had outstanding year wrestling for Forks High School at 119 weight class 2002 ///// MARCHANTIIDAE subclass structural development gametangia - reduced sporophytes - capsule wall always unistratose - usually seta abbreviated or absent.- 3 tissue differentiation oil-body-bearing v. free cells - 4 -nat. sporogenesis large water-disseminated spores v. wind in Jungermannidae -5 sporeling development -6 di-polymorphic rhizoids except Sphaerocarpales - 7 spermatid ultrastructure NEGATIVE CRITERIA a. apical growth does not involve tetrahedral apical cell [v. Jungermannidae] -b. no evidence of ancestral triradial leafy type [unless fossil Naiadita is related] but p. 758 ancestry presumed for in or near Jungermannidae -c. no pre-Mesozoic fossils -d. continental climate - seasonal dryness -e generally large spores, not wind transport germination by germ tube and rhizoid -- chlorophyllose sporeling development - at some distance from spore - ecesis on friable soil or silt - Marchantioid spore may be covered whereas Jungermannidae are surface germinators. - except MONOCLEA MARCHANTIIDAE adapt to dry conditions by SHORT GAMETOPHYTIC LFE CYCLES -- DURABLE LARGE SPORES in Sphaerocarpales and/or GAMETOPHYTIC DROUGHT RESISTANCE in MARCHANTIALES - salt pan MONOCARPUS hass all three. p 756 Sporophyte a. in MONOCLEA well developed -b. in Marchantia short seta, small foot - includes Naiadita fossil -c. RICCIA no seta, little foot, sporogonium wall resorbed before spore matures -- GAMETOPHYTE a. radial symmetry only in fossil NAIADITA -b. Erect, with dorsal wing[s] + two rows of leaf scales RIELLA aquatic c. dorsiventral leafy Sphaerocarpos -d. Thallose dorsiventral little tissue differentiation MONOCLEA, MONOSELINIUM -e. Thallose dorsiventral with air chambers and pores Marchantia f. RICCIA like -e- but WITHOUT air chambers/pores BT VERTICAL AIR CANALS iin otherwise solid thallus. Lakes and rills. /// semidesert Mannia, Targionia caves + rooftops Cyathodium Riccia adults may be neotenic with ancestral juvenile characters. Wind-dissemination is retained in Haplomitrium, Blasia, Monoclea, Lunularia, some Marchantiaceae - thin walls less than 35 micron spores - short spore viability a few one-two pre-meiotic divisions. p. 758 Jungermannidae vs Marchantiidae - sporophyte structure shares division into foot, seta, capsule. Young capsule wall green, photosynthetic w. annular or U-shaped thickenings on wall cells. elaters simple - Linear filamentous embryo found in both. - Chl small numerous v. anthocerotae plate shaped, large. bridging J-M gap Naiadita, Sphaerocarpales, Monocleales, p 759 ponds, lakes seasonal fluctuations for Marchantiids - high light intensities except Monocleales- disturbed habitats fewer vascular competitors -- In Monocleales after spore-elater division repeated MITOTIC divisions of sister cell of elater mother-cell to- 8-9 sporocytes to one elaterocyte thus 32-36 spore/elater ratio. 760 If earliest hepatics riverine- but with pond periodicity LARGE SPORES BURIED IN SILT + NOURISHED FOR TIME PERIOD. Were small thin-wall numerous spores pleisiomorphic in Lunularia, Conocephalum, Marchantia? // MARCHANTIIDAE pp 794-827 notes on Rudolph Schuster Hepaticae [liverworts]794 NAIADITA gametophyte erect axis - three equal rows unlobed leaves. MONOCLEALES sporophyte large foot massive elongating seta like CALOBRYALES archegonia + sex organ ontogeny resemble Calobryales mature archegonium has very lng nech sixteen-twenty neck canal cells Ontogeny like Haplomitrium. LUNULARIA least reduced sporophyte in Marchantiales/ clearly extruded on a rather distinct seta at maturity unique in Marchantiales in regularly four-walled CAPSULE 928:1 Multiple fertilization + _ multiple sporophytes per gynoecium occur regularly CRONISIA simple acropetal occ of gametangia dorsal on gametophyte 795 MONOCLEA -LUNULARIA spore-elater division PRIMITIVE trait PROTOTYPE GAMETOPHYTE ERECT growing by TETRAHEDRAL APICAL CELL -2- S organs massive ontogeny primitve archeg w 16-20 neck canal cells 3 S. large foot, massive elongating seta caps dehiscing by four lines -4- MONLCEA-LUNULARIA-HAPLOMITRIUM fertilization of one archegonium DOES NOT INHIBIT others in same gynoecium 2-4 sporophytes in one gynoecium in M forsteri -797 MARCHANTIIDAE share - 1- method of division of ZYGOTE - 2 - UNISTRATOSE CAP WALL 3 OIL BODIES singly in specialized choroplast-free specialized cells IDIOBLASTS -- of thallus -4individual 'incvoluncres' 'perianth around each fertile archegonium EXCEPT MONOCLEA and many genera of Marchantiales [ceae?]. -5- dev, of sporangium from ENTIRE EPIBASAL CELL (seta and foot from HYPOBASAL CELL) 6- reduction of foot and seta -7- large spore size -8- tendency to TETRADS until near maturity with contrasting INNER-OUTER faces largely unknown in Jungermannidae + other Hepatics. Differences MONOCLEALES Rhizoid though position DIMORPHIC All SIMILAR DIAMETER -798-- most smooth thallus -uniformly parenchymatous cells without pores, air chambers. -3- CAPSULE singly levted on elongating SETA opens by SINGLE SLIT ON ONE SIDE -4- OIL CELLS WITH CHLOROPLASTS 5- No ventral scales ventral appendages one-celled clavate slime papillae. N = 9. MARCHANTIALES Rhizoids always DIMORPHIC some smooth some pegged THALLUS +- ventral + dorsal parenchyma Capsule short no seta - opens by lid. CLEISTOCARPOUS or irregular rupture or by several valves. OIL CELLS LACK CHLOROPLASTS. (one) two or more rows MULTICELL VENTRAL SCALES many N from 8,9,10,12,15,18, 24, 27 SPHAEROCARPALES n= 8 or 9 UNISTRATOSE LEAVES or scales W.O.WITHOUT pores + air chambers. only smooth rhizoids all equal diameter ANTHERIDIA oval or spherical +- surr by individual involucres archegonia with two canal cells. Absent spore-elater division. no elaters cleistocarpous. OIL CELLS LACKING or similar to CHLORPHYLLOSE cells. in size and form. BEILATERAL SYMMETRY except radial fossil NAIADITA. Only RIELLLA has OIL CELLS which are same size as chlorophyllose cells. Other Sphaerocarpales have UNICEL SLIME PAPILLAE SPHAEROCARPALES males usually smaller except monoecious RIELLA species -799 WA to CHILE Sphaerocarpos texanus S1 WA-MEX-TX-NC + Eur + Medit into? Ausl. S2 michelli TX S3 donnellii FL S4 drewei [Wigglesworth] CA S5 hians [Haynes] NW interior Idaho? S6 cristatus [Hower] CA S7 muccilloi [Viana] s. Brazil S8 stipitatus [Bisch ex Lindenb.] Chile Geothallus tuberosus Campb. rare CA V-810 "IF imperfectly dissociating Sphaerocarpos-like spores of SAGENOTETRADITES Lower Carboniferous,[=Mississippian] western Australia were from mudflats, seasonal environment [compare Ulva, Enteromorpha algae] perhaps [Sphaerocarpales] group existed in Paleozoic, so gametophytic similarities of Sphaerocarposa to fossombronia may prove less acciental than here assumed." S. texani, michelii are WINTER ANNUALS on BROKEN SOIL December-April often only February-March + aestivate as spore stage Sex chromosomes in plants were first studied in Sphaerocarpos 1919 Allen. Large spore tetrads wqith 2m and 2f individuals have potential for genetic research like Ascomycetes, yeast. Strikingly heterothallic male pigmented female green or weak with continuous flasks. In genus Geothallus scarcely heterothallic sizes. B. Apices of shoots become tuberous in dry season like Petallophyllum C. spores with FREE FACE almost smooth. Germination PROXIMAL rather than DISTAL. Doyle 1962 revives genus Geothallus valid but not far from Sphaerocarpos. S. texanus starts life cycle late fall October-November intermittent winter growth Spores mature February to April prior to start of cultivation old corn + cotton fields. -827 RIELLA small scale like multicellular -- 827 gametophyte bilateral symmetry at right angles to thallus surface soooth walled rhizoids basally on one side conspicuous undulate thin delicate unistratose WING overarches APEX of postically coiled AXIS shoot apex appears CIRCINNATE 18 species far west Riella affinis, + Riella americana 829 ADJACENT WING, SOMETIMES DIMORPHIC lateral leaf + ventral scales OIL BODIES LARGE, singly in scattered cells devoid of chloroplasts. Asexual reproduction by brood-bodies (GEMMAE) ventral side of axis Antheridia singly developed in acropetal series oval, whitish. Solitary archegonia by pyriform or bottle-shape PERICHAETIA sessile distally open develop on acropetal succession right and left of wing. Sporophyte [associated nurse cells] seta slight Foot near spherical Cleistocarpous. very large spores released individually on decay of capsule wall External face sharply SPINOSE spine tips may be truncate, dilated Sporeling arises DISTAD of spore on germination filament as a + - paddle-shaped cuneiform thallus n = 9. REILLA "ruffle plant" erect + - basally attached undulate thallus Mediterranean: R1-7 notarisii monoecious [Allorge 1932], bialata,helicophylla, parisii, cossoniana, sersuensis, numidica, R8 protandrous-monoecious AFFINIS San Francisco,CA Canary Islands + occurs Uttar Pradesh R9 purpureospora [Wigglesworth] S.Af + alatospora "shoot tip circinnate" - check which - R 10 americana Oglala-CA R11 capensis S.Af. R12 echinospora S-SW Af. R13 halophila Victoria Australia salt-tolerant R14 spiculata W. vic, Australia R15-16 Argentina gamundiae [hassel] pampae [hassel] [check position: Sidewise, specialized laterally compressed -unusual Growth apical cell on two cutting faces.] R 827-844 S 799-827 RIELLA 827-844 // from Duckett 1982,3 VI-26 basic spermatid ultrastructure. Marchantiales ancestor prob like MONOCLEA a sporeling WITHOUT GERM TUBE + RHIZOID as Jungemrmannidae B. gametophyte APPLANATE + THALLOID but thallus SIMPLE apices protected by UNICELL slime papillae C gametangia archegonium with massive long neck, many neck canal cells in D gametangia produced acropetally on thallus surface protected only by overarching posterior scalelike outgrowths. E, SPOROPHYTES massive seta elongating Longitudinal sutures open capsule wall 901:1 MONOCLEA Advanced ONLY in gametangia aggregated dorsally - androecia receptacles gynoecia clustered - elaborate posterior scales fused laterally to thallus margins 901:2 916:10,12 NZ S Am. forsteri + Mex Af SAm gottschei lack air chambers pores ventral scales. VI - 82 LUNULARIA Mediterranean region Macvicar 1926 PRIMITIVE Characters A pseudoperianth lacking B several archegonia per gynoecium, derived from a condensed fertile thallus/lobe system. C. Both archegoniophores + antheridiophores arose from shoot apices- in apical incisions, eventually laterally displaced due to growth of one of two thallus lobes. D. Well developed SPOROPHYTE resembles MONOCLEA. - B and C are links to Marchantiales order. SPECIALIZATIONS in LUNULARIA discoid gemmae or receptacles; - very small SPORES - - SCALES with reniform, basally constricted appendages -- Air chambers in a sharply defined single layer in Lunularia and Marchantiae, but LUNULARIA lacks compound pores- even archegoniophores lack ventilating tissue -2- lack thickening bands in capsule walls -3- have regular four-valved capsule on long seta -4- absence of rhizoid furrow of archeogionphore -- 5 havwe sessile antheridiophore L-March-Con - crescentic ventral scales with basally constructed large appendage. LUN-CON green thin walled spores diff from CONOCEPHALUM in b + d above + absence of rhizoid furrow; well defined dehiscence to base of capsule 928:1 lack of capsule wall thickenings 928:4 deeply quadrilobed Conocephalum rep. by discoid gemmae rather than brood-branches; very small spores, reamaining one-celled at time of release. CON_LUN pseudolateral Conoc + Lun share identical thallus structure air chambers in a single layer- near identical ventral scales - similar thallus pores 929:8 + 932:5 short lived spores -faintly sculptured exine- carpocephalum stalk tardily elongating only at near-maturation of sporophytes; soft-textured soon collapsing after spore release. Sc? L prim then lines to C + M. WELL DEVELOPED SPOROPHYTES;; FOOT SPHERICAL - end with seta flattened;; ARCHEGONIATE stalk lacks rhizoid furrow or air chambers - is weak, translucent. Young gynoecium surrounded by basal cluster of hyaline arachnoid margined scales, bracts forming whitish "tuft" prior to maturation, which forms capillary system favoring fertiization as in Athalamia. Jungermannidae subclass intercalate more mitotic divisions prior to initial MEIOSIS - scores of spores per elater- Schistochilidae. But Aytoniaceae no mitotic division following spore-elater division so 4:1 S:E In Marchantia spores become larger. elaters reduced in Corsinia or spore-elater division suppressed in derived later-evolved Riccineae.


 

1518.
107-1518

 

Forks Forum gives extensive coverage of Forks and nearby High Schools {Clallam + Neah Bay] sports, student profiles, community activities. Jordon Peterson is an outstanding performer in track and cross country who has been invited to many tournaments. REMEMBERING Harvard PALEONTOLOGIST STEPHEN JAY GOULD - Sympathy to all friends of Harvard paleontologist Stephen Gould I was sorry to hear of the cancer death of Harvard's paleontologist and historian of science Stephen Gould at age sixty. My contacts with him were usually when he was hosting visiting lectures at the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences in their lecture hall at 22 Oxford St. in the Natural History Museums. One time I heard him speak at Harvard Hillel. Recently at Peninsula Junior College here in Port Angeles Washington, Biology Professor Edward Tisch showed his class a 1970s video of Gould and one of his sons, including their conversation with New York Yankees outfielder Joe Dimaggio. Among the distinguished visitors whose lectures Steve hosted I particularly remember Harry Whittington of Cambridge University, Great Britain, leading researcher on animals of the Burgess Shale of Cambrian Epoch in Yoho National Park, Canada, and Dolph Seilacher, recently at Yale, who explained how diverse organisms play distinct roles in building coral reefs. I knew Steve Gould well enough to feel personal grief at his passing, but I want to express my sympathy to those who worked closely with him over a number of years, particularly population geneticist Richard Lewontin, paleobotanist Andrew Knoll, paleosol expert Heinrich Holland, and atmosphere-climate experts including Michael McElroy and Paul Hoffman. I heard about Steven Gould from the late Dr. Charles Bradford, orthopedic surgeon and son of a dean of Harvard Medical School. The first time I saw Steve Gould personally was in a seminar in January 1987 on the earth's atmosphere - past present and future - Andrew Knoll, who studied the earliest life with Elso Barghoorn and is expert both on cyanobacteria and stromatolites and on geological processes that sometimes created and sometimes destroyed free oxygen and carbon dioxide - started the program with the early history of the earth and its atmosphere. Steve Gould led into the contemporary period and the existence of man, including the great catastrophe about sixty-six million years ago, in which a comet hit the earth leaving an iridium layer, and acting as a probable factor in the extinction of the dinosaurs. It seems that sometimes evolution has involved the survival of the lucky more than survival of the fit. Anyway, with the dinosaurs gone, first mammals and then apes and then humans found space to diversify. Then Michael McElroy, who made important discoveries convincing skeptics that chlorine-flourine compounds have caused the huge Antarctic ozone how, was the third speaker looking to the earth's atmosphere of the future. Gould's real specialty was fossil land snails, which often give clues to time scale of strata by changes in their shells. In places like Oahu, Hawaii, snail species manaage to be isolated from gene flow by geography and become very idiosyncratic. When Gould was in an expansive mood, he would talk on the history of science - but sometimes, if someone asked a question he didn't want to reply to in detail, he would say,"I specialize in fossil land snails." Gould often has succeeded in observing incipient species in the process of formation, a proof of the reality of evolutionary change. Morphology is often driven by "selection"- relative success in producing generations of healthy offspring adapted to their environments and lucky enough to escape disease, predation, and random catastrophes. The words of Robert Burns come to mind, "The best-laid plan o' mice and men gang aft a-gly." Steve grew up in New York, and for thirty years wrote a monthly article for "Natural History" magazine published by the American Museum of Natural History. The Title "This View of Life" was borrowed from Charles Darwin. Aristotle said he loved his mentor Plato, but loved truth more - Gould's relation to Darwin is analagous. Some of his articles were gathered in books such as "The Panda's Thumb" [actually a spur on the wrist helpful in feeding] and "The Flamingo's Smile" - the flamingo turns its head upside down while searching and digging for food, and upside down it seems to have a smiling expression. One of Steve Gould's most remarkable literary achievements - in company with Richard Lewontin was the astonishing essay "The Spandrels of San Marco", the long "Critique of Adaptationism" around 1982, when their colleague Edward O. Wilson published his pioneering big book "Sociobiology". Wilson studies small ants but often writes BIG BOOKS such as profusely illustrated Holldobler & Wilson "THE ANTS", which I was looking at this morning. Wilson and a student collaborator looked at the possibility that there was a genetic basis for cannibalism among ancient peoples of South America. In a statistical sense it is likely these people may at times undergo a deficiency of protein in their diet - recent anthropological research suggests that brain and liver may be even more important as sources of DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACIC and other Omega Three oils in the diet. An anthropologists' convention April 2002 in Buffalo reported by Ann Gibbons SCIENCE May 3, 2002 investigates how human ancestors got Omega three oils needed for expanded brain function - they found human ancestors in Africa fishing seventy to ninety thousand years ago, but animal brain and liver and sometimes cannibalism may have contributed also, as Wilson and his student speculated. They wondered if a gene causes cannibalism - one might respond that cannibalism, though important in many arthropods as a means of regulating population levels, is essentially a special case of carnivory - one needs genes to make a digestive tract and teeth that are fitted for meat, and then one might look for genetic or social REPRESSORS that prevent CANNIBALISM -- anyway Lewontin and Gould said "GENES CODE PROTEINS" - and they suggested that research money should not be devoted excessively to speculative concepts that were not readily testable. Knowledge of human and animal genomes has increased by orders of magnitude in the intervening twenty years, but Lewontin and Gould have remained concerned about human freedom from rigid gene control or rigid ideology, including abuses of genetics, such as occurred in the state of Virginia under the doctrine of Oliver Wendell Holmes's infamous opinion allowing sterilization of persons labelled "mentally retarded" [in Buck v. Bell]. Lewontin and Gould spoke of themselves as Marxists, but not in the sense in which most Americans understand the term - they were - Lewontin still is a defender of human dignity and mental plasticity under environmental influences. A change in a single gene may cause two ants to attack each other, but human behavior is multi-factored and complex. Gould was a strong champion of the work of ornithologist Charles Sibley, who used DNA hybridization to determine the relationships of more than one thousand of nine thousand living bird species. Sibley found that generation time affects the data, as of changes - mutations occur when the DNA - genetic material is undergoing MEIOSIS - cell division and recombination. Sibley's data indicated that humans and chimpanzees had a common ancestor about 7.7 million years ago, while gorillas diverged about one million years earlier. This result agreed with the chromosome banding data published by Yunis and Prakash 1982 but was attacked by Vincent Sarich, whose protein 'clocks' greatly underestimated the time - Sarich guessed three million years, but now bones of erect-walking human ancestors probably over six million years have been found under a lava flow in the Rift Valley of north-east Ethiopia. At the time of his death Stephen Gould had a major book prepared for publication on history of science in the area of evolution. A few years ago he published "Wonderful Life" on the Burgess Shale Cambrian fossils of the British Columbia Rockies, where a sudden turbidity current preserved the soft parts of athropodes like the huge predator Anomalocharis, and the first mollusks, echinoderms, and many other phyla, living and extinct. These fossils discovered around 1909 sat for decades in drawers at the Smithsonian Institution, until Harry Whittington in the 1960s and his Cambridge students Derek Briggs and Simon Conway Morris began to study them. Gould's book has wonderful illustrations of the Burgess fauna. Similar sites have turned up in recent years in Greenland and China. Dolph Seilacher and James Valentine and several Australian and Russian researchers are pushing back the beginnings of the metazoan multi-cell animal fossil record in time - the Ediacara or Vendian rocks of Australia are important, and many regions where there were political barriers to fossil search have opened up. Steve Gould's Harvard colleage Paul Hoffman has evidence that between 730 and 580 million years ago, there were at least four severe ice ages, when the earth's oceans froze all the way to the equator, except for oases around volcanoes and hot springs. These events greatly reduced photosynthesis, leading to very warm interglacials, which may have triggered punctuated evolutionary change, much as Gould and Eldredge suggested around 1972. Gould has done a great deal to develop public support of paleontology around the world. I have known a number of his students, who are pursuing careers in paleobiology and related fields - they will miss him, but he leaves paleobiology and life sciences much stronger than when he arrived on the scene. Let us hope Harvard continues to give strong support to life sciences, natural history, and paleontology. I myself do much paleobotany, and believe there will be much progress next few years combining molecular and fossil evidence, and in plants especially the abundant evidence of pollen and spores. - John Barrett Harvard 1957 law 1960 active at various times in Friends of Arnold Arboretum, Farlow Herbarium, Museum of Comparative Biology, Cambridge Entomological Club, New England Botanical Club, Boston Mycological Society.


 

1519.

 

Colleen Silcox and Jennifer Hershey in Forks girls basketball 2002 //// MARCHANTIIDAE subclass structural development gametangia - reduced sporophytes - capsule wall always unistratose - usually seta abbreviated or absent.- 3 tissue differentiation oil-body-bearing v. free cells - 4 -nat. sporogenesis large water-disseminated spores v. wind in Jungermannidae -5 sporeling development -6 di-polymorphic rhizoids except Sphaerocarpales - 7 spermatid ultrastructure NEGATIVE CRITERIA a. apical growth does not involve tetrahedral apical cell [v. Jungermannidae] -b. no evidence of ancestral triradial leafy type [unless fossil Naiadita is related] but p. 758 ancestry presumed for in or near Jungermannidae -c. no pre-Mesozoic fossils -d. continental climate - seasonal dryness -e generally large spores, not wind transport germination by germ tube and rhizoid -- chlorophyllose sporeling development - at some distance from spore - ecesis on friable soil or silt - Marchantioid spore may be covered whereas Jungermannidae are surface germinators. - except MONOCLEA MARCHANTIIDAE adapt to dry conditions by SHORT GAMETOPHYTIC LFE CYCLES -- DURABLE LARGE SPORES in Sphaerocarpales and/or GAMETOPHYTIC DROUGHT RESISTANCE in MARCHANTIALES - salt pan MONOCARPUS hass all three. p 756 Sporophyte a. in MONOCLEA well developed -b. in Marchantia short seta, small foot - includes Naiadita fossil -c. RICCIA no seta, little foot, sporogonium wall resorbed before spore matures -- GAMETOPHYTE a. radial symmetry only in fossil NAIADITA -b. Erect, with dorsal wing[s] + two rows of leaf scales RIELLA aquatic c. dorsiventral leafy Sphaerocarpos -d. Thallose dorsiventral little tissue differentiation MONOCLEA, MONOSELINIUM -e. Thallose dorsiventral with air chambers and pores Marchantia f. RICCIA like -e- but WITHOUT air chambers/pores BT VERTICAL AIR CANALS iin otherwise solid thallus. Lakes and rills. /// semidesert Mannia, Targionia caves + rooftops Cyathodium Riccia adults may be neotenic with ancestral juvenile characters. Wind-dissemination is retained in Haplomitrium, Blasia, Monoclea, Lunularia, some Marchantiaceae - thin walls less than 35 micron spores - short spore viability a few one-two pre-meiotic divisions. p. 758 Jungermannidae vs Marchantiidae - sporophyte structure shares division into foot, seta, capsule. Young capsule wall green, photosynthetic w. annular or U-shaped thickenings on wall cells. elaters simple - Linear filamentous embryo found in both. - Chl small numerous v. anthocerotae plate shaped, large. bridging J-M gap Naiadita, Sphaerocarpales, Monocleales, p 759 ponds, lakes seasonal fluctuations for Marchantiids - high light intensities except Monocleales- disturbed habitats fewer vascular competitors -- In Monocleales after spore-elater division repeated MITOTIC divisions of sister cell of elater mother-cell to- 8-9 sporocytes to one elaterocyte thus 32-36 spore/elater ratio. 760 If earliest hepatics riverine- but with pond periodicity LARGE SPORES BURIED IN SILT + NOURISHED FOR TIME PERIOD. Were small thin-wall numerous spores pleisiomorphic in Lunularia, Conocephalum, Marchantia? // MARCHANTIIDAE pp 794-827 notes on Rudolph Schuster Hepaticae [liverworts]794 NAIADITA gametophyte erect axis - three equal rows unlobed leaves. MONOCLEALES sporophyte large foot massive elongating seta like CALOBRYALES archegonia + sex organ ontogeny resemble Calobryales mature archegonium has very lng nech sixteen-twenty neck canal cells Ontogeny like Haplomitrium. LUNULARIA least reduced sporophyte in Marchantiales/ clearly extruded on a rather distinct seta at maturity unique in Marchantiales in regularly four-walled CAPSULE 928:1 Multiple fertilization + _ multiple sporophytes per gynoecium occur regularly CRONISIA simple acropetal occ of gametangia dorsal on gametophyte 795 MONOCLEA -LUNULARIA spore-elater division PRIMITIVE trait PROTOTYPE GAMETOPHYTE ERECT growing by TETRAHEDRAL APICAL CELL -2- S organs massive ontogeny primitve archeg w 16-20 neck canal cells 3 S. large foot, massive elongating seta caps dehiscing by four lines -4- MONLCEA-LUNULARIA-HAPLOMITRIUM fertilization of one archegonium DOES NOT INHIBIT others in same gynoecium 2-4 sporophytes in one gynoecium in M forsteri -797 MARCHANTIIDAE share - 1- method of division of ZYGOTE - 2 - UNISTRATOSE CAP WALL 3 OIL BODIES singly in specialized choroplast-free specialized cells IDIOBLASTS -- of thallus -4individual 'incvoluncres' 'perianth around each fertile archegonium EXCEPT MONOCLEA and many genera of Marchantiales [ceae?]. -5- dev, of sporangium from ENTIRE EPIBASAL CELL (seta and foot from HYPOBASAL CELL) 6- reduction of foot and seta -7- large spore size -8- tendency to TETRADS until near maturity with contrasting INNER-OUTER faces largely unknown in Jungermannidae + other Hepatics. Differences MONOCLEALES Rhizoid though position DIMORPHIC All SIMILAR DIAMETER -798-- most smooth thallus -uniformly parenchymatous cells without pores, air chambers. -3- CAPSULE singly levted on elongating SETA opens by SINGLE SLIT ON ONE SIDE -4- OIL CELLS WITH CHLOROPLASTS 5- No ventral scales ventral appendages one-celled clavate slime papillae. N = 9. MARCHANTIALES Rhizoids always DIMORPHIC some smooth some pegged THALLUS +- ventral + dorsal parenchyma Capsule short no seta - opens by lid. CLEISTOCARPOUS or irregular rupture or by several valves. OIL CELLS LACK CHLOROPLASTS. (one) two or more rows MULTICELL VENTRAL SCALES many N from 8,9,10,12,15,18, 24, 27 SPHAEROCARPALES n= 8 or 9 UNISTRATOSE LEAVES or scales W.O.WITHOUT pores + air chambers. only smooth rhizoids all equal diameter ANTHERIDIA oval or spherical +- surr by individual involucres archegonia with two canal cells. Absent spore-elater division. no elaters cleistocarpous. OIL CELLS LACKING or similar to CHLORPHYLLOSE cells. in size and form. BEILATERAL SYMMETRY except radial fossil NAIADITA. Only RIELLLA has OIL CELLS which are same size as chlorophyllose cells. Other Sphaerocarpales have UNICEL SLIME PAPILLAE SPHAEROCARPALES males usually smaller except monoecious RIELLA species -799 WA to CHILE Sphaerocarpos texanus S1 WA-MEX-TX-NC + Eur + Medit into? Ausl. S2 michelli TX S3 donnellii FL S4 drewei [Wigglesworth] CA S5 hians [Haynes] NW interior Idaho? S6 cristatus [Hower] CA S7 muccilloi [Viana] s. Brazil S8 stipitatus [Bisch ex Lindenb.] Chile Geothallus tuberosus Campb. rare CA V-810 "IF imperfectly dissociating Sphaerocarpos-like spores of SAGENOTETRADITES Lower Carboniferous,[=Mississippian] western Australia were from mudflats, seasonal environment [compare Ulva, Enteromorpha algae] perhaps [Sphaerocarpales] group existed in Paleozoic, so gametophytic similarities of Sphaerocarposa to fossombronia may prove less acciental than here assumed." S. texani, michelii are WINTER ANNUALS on BROKEN SOIL December-April often only February-March + aestivate as spore stage Sex chromosomes in plants were first studied in Sphaerocarpos 1919 Allen. Large spore tetrads wqith 2m and 2f individuals have potential for genetic research like Ascomycetes, yeast. Strikingly heterothallic male pigmented female green or weak with continuous flasks. In genus Geothallus scarcely heterothallic sizes. B. Apices of shoots become tuberous in dry season like Petallophyllum C. spores with FREE FACE almost smooth. Germination PROXIMAL rather than DISTAL. Doyle 1962 revives genus Geothallus valid but not far from Sphaerocarpos. S. texanus starts life cycle late fall October-November intermittent winter growth Spores mature February to April prior to start of cultivation old corn + cotton fields. -827 RIELLA small scale like multicellular -- 827 gametophyte bilateral symmetry at right angles to thallus surface soooth walled rhizoids basally on one side conspicuous undulate thin delicate unistratose WING overarches APEX of postically coiled AXIS shoot apex appears CIRCINNATE 18 species far west Riella affinis, + Riella americana 829 ADJACENT WING, SOMETIMES DIMORPHIC lateral leaf + ventral scales OIL BODIES LARGE, singly in scattered cells devoid of chloroplasts. Asexual reproduction by brood-bodies (GEMMAE) ventral side of axis Antheridia singly developed in acropetal series oval, whitish. Solitary archegonia by pyriform or bottle-shape PERICHAETIA sessile distally open develop on acropetal succession right and left of wing. Sporophyte [associated nurse cells] seta slight Foot near spherical Cleistocarpous. very large spores released individually on decay of capsule wall External face sharply SPINOSE spine tips may be truncate, dilated Sporeling arises DISTAD of spore on germination filament as a + - paddle-shaped cuneiform thallus n = 9. REILLA "ruffle plant" erect + - basally attached undulate thallus Mediterranean: R1-7 notarisii monoecious [Allorge 1932], bialata,helicophylla, parisii, cossoniana, sersuensis, numidica, R8 protandrous-monoecious AFFINIS San Francisco,CA Canary Islands + occurs Uttar Pradesh R9 purpureospora [Wigglesworth] S.Af + alatospora "shoot tip circinnate" - check which - R 10 americana Oglala-CA R11 capensis S.Af. R12 echinospora S-SW Af. R13 halophila Victoria Australia salt-tolerant R14 spiculata W. vic, Australia R15-16 Argentina gamundiae [hassel] pampae [hassel] [check position: Sidewise, specialized laterally compressed -unusual Growth apical cell on two cutting faces.] R 827-844 S 799-827 RIELLA 827-844 // from Duckett 1982,3 VI-26 basic spermatid ultrastructure. Marchantiales ancestor prob like MONOCLEA a sporeling WITHOUT GERM TUBE + RHIZOID as Jungemrmannidae B. gametophyte APPLANATE + THALLOID but thallus SIMPLE apices protected by UNICELL slime papillae C gametangia archegonium with massive long neck, many neck canal cells in D gametangia produced acropetally on thallus surface protected only by overarching posterior scalelike outgrowths. E, SPOROPHYTES massive seta elongating Longitudinal sutures open capsule wall 901:1 MONOCLEA Advanced ONLY in gametangia aggregated dorsally - androecia receptacles gynoecia clustered - elaborate posterior scales fused laterally to thallus margins 901:2 916:10,12 NZ S Am. forsteri + Mex Af SAm gottschei lack air chambers pores ventral scales. VI - 82 LUNULARIA Mediterranean region Macvicar 1926 PRIMITIVE Characters A pseudoperianth lacking B several archegonia per gynoecium, derived from a condensed fertile thallus/lobe system. C. Both archegoniophores + antheridiophores arose from shoot apices- in apical incisions, eventually laterally displaced due to growth of one of two thallus lobes. D. Well developed SPOROPHYTE resembles MONOCLEA. - B and C are links to Marchantiales order. SPECIALIZATIONS in LUNULARIA discoid gemmae or receptacles; - very small SPORES - - SCALES with reniform, basally constricted appendages -- Air chambers in a sharply defined single layer in Lunularia and Marchantiae, but LUNULARIA lacks compound pores- even archegoniophores lack ventilating tissue -2- lack thickening bands in capsule walls -3- have regular four-valved capsule on long seta -4- absence of rhizoid furrow of archeogionphore -- 5 havwe sessile antheridiophore L-March-Con - crescentic ventral scales with basally constructed large appendage. LUN-CON green thin walled spores diff from CONOCEPHALUM in b + d above + absence of rhizoid furrow; well defined dehiscence to base of capsule 928:1 lack of capsule wall thickenings 928:4 deeply quadrilobed Conocephalum rep. by discoid gemmae rather than brood-branches; very small spores, reamaining one-celled at time of release. CON_LUN pseudolateral Conoc + Lun share identical thallus structure air chambers in a single layer- near identical ventral scales - similar thallus pores 929:8 + 932:5 short lived spores -faintly sculptured exine- carpocephalum stalk tardily elongating only at near-maturation of sporophytes; soft-textured soon collapsing after spore release. Sc? L prim then lines to C + M. WELL DEVELOPED SPOROPHYTES;; FOOT SPHERICAL - end with seta flattened;; ARCHEGONIATE stalk lacks rhizoid furrow or air chambers - is weak, translucent. Young gynoecium surrounded by basal cluster of hyaline arachnoid margined scales, bracts forming whitish "tuft" prior to maturation, which forms capillary system favoring fertiization as in Athalamia. Jungermannidae subclass intercalate more mitotic divisions prior to initial MEIOSIS - scores of spores per elater- Schistochilidae. But Aytoniaceae no mitotic division following spore-elater division so 4:1 S:E In Marchantia spores become larger. elaters reduced in Corsinia or spore-elater division suppressed in derived later-evolved Riccineae.


 

1520.
107=1520

 

Alena Fletcher,Billy Lewis,Erika Wendell, Amy McIntyre VFW Post 9106 essay contest "Voice of Democracy" winners - also Alan Ball .....Gregg - You raise an interesting question as to the color of the early sky. To begin with, remember the sun was probably not as bright and might have been a bit more reddish. There are two climate experts Professors Prell and Imbrie, who were at Brown last I heard - I talked with them when James Kasting of University of Pennsylvania spoke at Harvard Deparment of Earth and Planetary Sciences around 1993-5. Nitrogen would have been the largest component as today. At some periods ammonia and methane may have been factors - I would have to review. The host of that Kasting talk was paleosol expert Heinrich Holland, who is very friendly though getting near retirement age. Michael McElroy is head of Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and produced powerful evidence on the anthropogenic chemicals that have cause an unprecedented ozone hole in the Antarctic and are spreading it further. Any of the foregoing would be knowledgable, and Andrew Knoll. There is some controversy over the oldest stromatolites and fossils over three billion years old - there are several related paleobiologists named Schopf, and I have to refresh their generations and first names, but one of them is a strong believer in the fossil nature of early stromatolites, while there are sceptics also. There are some researchers at La Jolla California on the early origins of life, including Leslie Orgel. They have thought much about the checmial nature of those environments. It is puzzling that cyanobacteria must have appeared hundreds of millions of years before oxygen came to be a major component nearly twenty per cent of atmosphere - various iron deponsits such as those in Minnesota show different valences and oxidation states I think the change was after 2.5 billion years ago. Then eukaryotic cells developed nuclear membranes to protect the DNa of the more complex multi-chromosome nucleus, and according to research led by Lynn Margulis around 1970, the mitochondrion developed by symbiosis and permitted much more active oxygen metabolism in eukaryotes than takes place in most bacteria [prokaryotes]. The late Carl Sagan was co-author about 1972 of the 'dim early sun' hypothesis - if he were alive, he would be the person to answer your question - but he and ex-wife Lynn Margulis had a son surname Sagan who works with his mother, based in the Amherst MA area - tho she does a lot of work in the Gulf of California [Mexico] on bacterial-algal mats and especially spirochaetes - she wonders if eukaryotic flagella [she calls them 'undulipodia" but term is not generally accepted] evolved by symbiosis from spirochaetes - unlike her other ideas there is not nuck present evidence in favor of this. They might be worth contacting. Rather than buttonholing specific scientists - you might try writing NASA, Smithsonian, American Museum of Natural History, various Earth and PLanetary Science Departments including Harvard and Berkeley and Cambridge and Oxford England if you are sufficiently interested. You may get more than one opinion. Fairly small contaminants like dust and water vapor can have a significant effect. The human eye has evolved to utilize those wave lengths where there is the most energy, mostly yellow-to--green. "If there were no eyes to see, would a burning candle throw its beams?" Another remarkable scientist you could contact is Paul Hoffman of Harvard, who in 1999 published his "Snowball earth" hypothesis THAT between 730 and 580 million years ago there were at least four very cold epochs where the ocean froze on the surface right to the equator, greatly reducing photosynthesis and leading to a rapid runaway greenhouse and interglacial intervals when the temperature was higher than today. Living things survived in oases around volcanoes and hot springs, but he has much evidence from most of the continents that photosynthesis worldwide was severaly curtailed. More speculative is his suggestion - hypothesis that these events speeded up the development of multicelled METAZOAN animals, - about 540 million years ago recognizable Arthropods, molluscs, echinoderms, hagfish-like chordates with calcium skeletons appear suddenly - the Burgess Shale in Yoho Park BC, Canada, was the first place where soft parts of Cambrian fossils were abundant, apparently suddenly buried by a turbidity current in mixed texture-and-size dirty-sandstone called 'greywacke'. Harry Whittington of Cambridge led study of the Burgess Shale with his students Derek Briggs and Simon Conway Morris. The color of the sky probably changed with time and periods of glaciation. Of course cloudy skies tend to be gray. If a greenhouse effect kept most of the earth warm with less sun energy, perhaps those early skies were GRAY ??? You ask a very interesting question, and I shall try to pass it along. How are your computer facilities? You do very interesting work on earthquake dangers. Some friends are concerned that their E mails may be overloaded. I read things on the computer. Other people have to print everything out, at cost of time and expense. Let me know your situation. I have been restricting things I send you mostly to geology. I know you haVE A BACKGROUND IN MATH. I am trying to pick up a little calculus -- I know fundamentals. a friend is taking calculus with interest in engineering, so I am brushing up and looking at history of mathematics. I am interested in the mathematical and computer methods used to align cladistic character data including DNA molecular sequences and wondering how I can acquire skills. I had a friendly answer from paleobotanist James Doyle at U. California Davis a top authority on fossil pollens. I hope I can get to work on the phylogeny and evolution of flowering plants. Let me know how much e mail you can handle. I shall try to research the color of the early sky - but I think it might be gray and fairly dark? ---John Barrett


 

1521.
107-1521

 

sinkhole in Highway 101 near Hoh River along Pacific Coast south of Forks along route toward Kalaloch Lodge on Olympic Peninsula coast and Queets, Quinault Native settlements and Humptulips, Hoquiam, Aberdeen. This is the route of the West Jefferson county buses in one of the highest-rainfall regions of United States. The scenery is worth visiting, and the steelhead fishing is the best in the world. DOYLE >Relation of pollen morphology to self-incompatibility is a huge >subject, and I wonder how far concepts can be extended back in time. I've managed to avoid this one. >I also wonder what is the earliest fossil evidence of pollen tubes >and pollen tube transmission tissue. A pollen tube is known in Callistophyton, in the Pennsylvanian, but it isn't clear if this was of the haustorial or sperm-transferring type (Rothwell, G. W., 1972. Evidence of pollen tubes in Paleozoic pteridosperms. Science 175: 772-774; Rothwell, G. W., 1981. The Callistophytales (Pteridospermopsida): reproductively sophisticated Paleozoic gymnosperms. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 32: 103-121). >Have you any opinion on Bruce Cornet's belief that pollen tube >transmission tissue of Sanmiguelia is more like angiosperms than >Gnetales? I think Bruce was trying to squeeze too much out of his fossils. Some of these things are hard enough to interpret in living plants. >The molecular evidence of a close relation of Gnetales to conifers >especially Pinaceae may not be totally settled - different results >occur I think with "Maximum Parsimony" and "Maximum Likelihood". For some genes, like the photosystem genes my colleague Mike Sanderson has studied. >I would welcome opportunities to study these mathematical techniques >rigorously. The subtleties are way beyond me... I'd check out Hillis, D. M., Moritz, C., Mable, B. K. (eds.), 1996. Molecular systematics, second edition, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., 515-543. >I think I saw something that there was a change in the number of >copies of phytochrome genes. The "Anthophyte Clade" appears to be an >'endangered' taxon, but it might still be possible for Gnetales to >turn up basal in symnosperms, It would really be ironic if both of the two youngest seed plant groups in the fossil record turn out to branch off before conifers, cycads, and ginkgos diverge from each other, which must have happened in the Pennsylvanian. It's bad enough with angiosperms (or rather the line leading to them, whatever it was) being the sister group of living gymnosperms. >Have you developed an estimate as to the probable branching date of >Amborella ancestors? The branching could be Jurassic. I'll have to send you Sanderson, M. J., Doyle, J. A., 2001. Sources of error and confidence intervals in estimating the age of angiosperms from rbcL and 18S rDNA data. Am. J. Bot. 88: 1499-1516. I'm highly leery of molecular clocks. >I was interested in two 1984 papers of Kubitzki and Gottlieb. In >August 1984 Taxon they argued for the importance of the shikimate >pathway in ancestral angiosperms. The shikimates give great >diversity of phytochemicals for herbivore defense and attractants >perhaps first for fruit and then for pollination. What happens to >this hypothesis now that the clade of Magnoliales is losing >primogeniture? But not to the benefit of groups like eudicots, remember. I admit I'm pretty shaky on phytochemistry. >It is still possible that Magnolia and Degeneria and others remained >in the original environment, while other clades colonized new sites. They're not so much like the ANITA groups. The ecophysiology of these is being worked on by Taylor Feild at Berkeley - he just got back from a month in China studying Illicium, Chloranthaceae, etc. They are almost all in shaded, disturbed habitats. >It will be important to characterize Amborella phytochemically Somebody must be doing this - although phytochemists are almost as endangered as palynologists. >I think it was Gottsberger who argued that Drimys might be the >ancestral condition, but I argued that the more tropical frangant >genera like Gygogynum probably needed time to evolve,while >unavailability of original pollinators could led to switches to >less-specialized types, as has occured in some Mominiaceae of >islands of Indian Ocean. Based on the fossil record and their sister group (Canellaceae), Winteraceae moved into their present temperate habitats from the tropics. >They concluded the data did not prove a close relation, though the >parallels are striking. They'd better not be homologous, with rosids being nested so deeply in the angiosperms. Best wishes, James A. Doyle Section of Evolution and Ecology University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA Telephone: 1-530-752-7591; fax: 1-530-752-1449


 


Rudolph Schuster pp 794-829 Hepaticae [liverworts]

 

MARCHANTIIDAE subclass structural development gametangia - reduced sporophytes - capsule wall always unistratose - usually seta abbreviated or absent.- 3 tissue differentiation oil-body-bearing v. free cells - 4 -nat. sporogenesis large water-disseminated spores v. wind in Jungermannidae -5 sporeling development -6 di-polymorphic rhizoids except Sphaerocarpales - 7 spermatid ultrastructure NEGATIVE CRITERIA a. apical growth does not involve tetrahedral apical cell [v. Jungermannidae] -b. no evidence of ancestral triradial leafy type [unless fossil Naiadita is related] but p. 758 ancestry presumed for in or near Jungermannidae -c. no pre-Mesozoic fossils -d. continental climate - seasonal dryness -e generally large spores, not wind transport germination by germ tube and rhizoid -- chlorophyllose sporeling development - at some distance from spore - ecesis on friable soil or silt - Marchantioid spore may be covered whereas Jungermannidae are surface germinators. - except MONOCLEA MARCHANTIIDAE adapt to dry conditions by SHORT GAMETOPHYTIC LFE CYCLES -- DURABLE LARGE SPORES in Sphaerocarpales and/or GAMETOPHYTIC DROUGHT RESISTANCE in MARCHANTIALES - salt pan MONOCARPUS hass all three. p 756 Sporophyte a. in MONOCLEA well developed -b. in Marchantia short seta, small foot - includes Naiadita fossil -c. RICCIA no seta, little foot, sporogonium wall resorbed before spore matures -- GAMETOPHYTE a. radial symmetry only in fossil NAIADITA -b. Erect, with dorsal wing[s] + two rows of leaf scales RIELLA aquatic c. dorsiventral leafy Sphaerocarpos -d. Thallose dorsiventral little tissue differentiation MONOCLEA, MONOSELINIUM -e. Thallose dorsiventral with air chambers and pores Marchantia f. RICCIA like -e- but WITHOUT air chambers/pores BT VERTICAL AIR CANALS iin otherwise solid thallus. Lakes and rills. /// semidesert Mannia, Targionia caves + rooftops Cyathodium Riccia adults may be neotenic with ancestral juvenile characters. Wind-dissemination is retained in Haplomitrium, Blasia, Monoclea, Lunularia, some Marchantiaceae - thin walls less than 35 micron spores - short spore viability a few one-two pre-meiotic divisions. p. 758 Jungermannidae vs Marchantiidae - sporophyte structure shares division into foot, seta, capsule. Young capsule wall green, photosynthetic w. annular or U-shaped thickenings on wall cells. elaters simple - Linear filamentous embryo found in both. - Chl small numerous v. anthocerotae plate shaped, large. bridging J-M gap Naiadita, Sphaerocarpales, Monocleales, p 759 ponds, lakes seasonal fluctuations for Marchantiids - high light intensities except Monocleales- disturbed habitats fewer vascular competitors -- In Monocleales after spore-elater division repeated MITOTIC divisions of sister cell of elater mother-cell to- 8-9 sporocytes to one elaterocyte thus 32-36 spore/elater ratio. 760 If earliest hepatics riverine- but with pond periodicity LARGE SPORES BURIED IN SILT + NOURISHED FOR TIME PERIOD. Were small thin-wall numerous spores pleisiomorphic in Lunularia, Conocephalum, Marchantia? // MARCHANTIIDAE pp 794-827 notes on Rudolph Schuster Hepaticae [liverworts]794 NAIADITA gametophyte erect axis - three equal rows unlobed leaves. MONOCLEALES sporophyte large foot massive elongating seta like CALOBRYALES archegonia + sex organ ontogeny resemble Calobryales mature archegonium has very lng nech sixteen-twenty neck canal cells Ontogeny like Haplomitrium. LUNULARIA least reduced sporophyte in Marchantiales/ clearly extruded on a rather distinct seta at maturity unique in Marchantiales in regularly four-walled CAPSULE 928:1 Multiple fertilization + _ multiple sporophytes per gynoecium occur regularly CRONISIA simple acropetal occ of gametangia dorsal on gametophyte 795 MONOCLEA -LUNULARIA spore-elater division PRIMITIVE trait PROTOTYPE GAMETOPHYTE ERECT growing by TETRAHEDRAL APICAL CELL -2- S organs massive ontogeny primitve archeg w 16-20 neck canal cells 3 S. large foot, massive elongating seta caps dehiscing by four lines -4- MONLCEA-LUNULARIA-HAPLOMITRIUM fertilization of one archegonium DOES NOT INHIBIT others in same gynoecium 2-4 sporophytes in one gynoecium in M forsteri -797 MARCHANTIIDAE share - 1- method of division of ZYGOTE - 2 - UNISTRATOSE CAP WALL 3 OIL BODIES singly in specialized choroplast-free specialized cells IDIOBLASTS -- of thallus -4individual 'incvoluncres' 'perianth around each fertile archegonium EXCEPT MONOCLEA and many genera of Marchantiales [ceae?]. -5- dev, of sporangium from ENTIRE EPIBASAL CELL (seta and foot from HYPOBASAL CELL) 6- reduction of foot and seta -7- large spore size -8- tendency to TETRADS until near maturity with contrasting INNER-OUTER faces largely unknown in Jungermannidae + other Hepatics. Differences MONOCLEALES Rhizoid though position DIMORPHIC All SIMILAR DIAMETER -798-- most smooth thallus -uniformly parenchymatous cells without pores, air chambers. -3- CAPSULE singly levted on elongating SETA opens by SINGLE SLIT ON ONE SIDE -4- OIL CELLS WITH CHLOROPLASTS 5- No ventral scales ventral appendages one-celled clavate slime papillae. N = 9. MARCHANTIALES Rhizoids always DIMORPHIC some smooth some pegged THALLUS +- ventral + dorsal parenchyma Capsule short no seta - opens by lid. CLEISTOCARPOUS or irregular rupture or by several valves. OIL CELLS LACK CHLOROPLASTS. (one) two or more rows MULTICELL VENTRAL SCALES many N from 8,9,10,12,15,18, 24, 27 SPHAEROCARPALES n= 8 or 9 UNISTRATOSE LEAVES or scales W.O.WITHOUT pores + air chambers. only smooth rhizoids all equal diameter ANTHERIDIA oval or spherical +- surr by individual involucres archegonia with two canal cells. Absent spore-elater division. no elaters cleistocarpous. OIL CELLS LACKING or similar to CHLORPHYLLOSE cells. in size and form. BEILATERAL SYMMETRY except radial fossil NAIADITA. Only RIELLLA has OIL CELLS which are same size as chlorophyllose cells. Other Sphaerocarpales have UNICEL SLIME PAPILLAE SPHAEROCARPALES males usually smaller except monoecious RIELLA species -799 WA to CHILE Sphaerocarpos texanus S1 WA-MEX-TX-NC + Eur + Medit into? Ausl. S2 michelli TX S3 donnellii FL S4 drewei [Wigglesworth] CA S5 hians [Haynes] NW interior Idaho? S6 cristatus [Hower] CA S7 muccilloi [Viana] s. Brazil S8 stipitatus [Bisch ex Lindenb.] Chile Geothallus tuberosus Campb. rare CA V-810 "IF imperfectly dissociating Sphaerocarpos-like spores of SAGENOTETRADITES Lower Carboniferous,[=Mississippian] western Australia were from mudflats, seasonal environment [compare Ulva, Enteromorpha algae] perhaps [Sphaerocarpales] group existed in Paleozoic, so gametophytic similarities of Sphaerocarposa to fossombronia may prove less acciental than here assumed." S. texani, michelii are WINTER ANNUALS on BROKEN SOIL December-April often only February-March + aestivate as spore stage Sex chromosomes in plants were first studied in Sphaerocarpos 1919 Allen. Large spore tetrads wqith 2m and 2f individuals have potential for genetic research like Ascomycetes, yeast. Strikingly heterothallic male pigmented female green or weak with continuous flasks. In genus Geothallus scarcely heterothallic sizes. B. Apices of shoots become tuberous in dry season like Petallophyllum C. spores with FREE FACE almost smooth. Germination PROXIMAL rather than DISTAL. Doyle 1962 revives genus Geothallus valid but not far from Sphaerocarpos. S. texanus starts life cycle late fall October-November intermittent winter growth Spores mature February to April prior to start of cultivation old corn + cotton fields. -827 RIELLA small scale like multicellular -- 827 gametophyte bilateral symmetry at right angles to thallus surface soooth walled rhizoids basally on one side conspicuous undulate thin delicate unistratose WING overarches APEX of postically coiled AXIS shoot apex appears CIRCINNATE 18 species far west Riella affinis, + Riella americana 829 ADJACENT WING, SOMETIMES DIMORPHIC lateral leaf + ventral scales OIL BODIES LARGE, singly in scattered cells devoid of chloroplasts. Asexual reproduction by brood-bodies (GEMMAE) ventral side of axis Antheridia singly developed in acropetal series oval, whitish. Solitary archegonia by pyriform or bottle-shape PERICHAETIA sessile distally open develop on acropetal succession right and left of wing. Sporophyte [associated nurse cells] seta slight Foot near spherical Cleistocarpous. very large spores released individually on decay of capsule wall External face sharply SPINOSE spine tips may be truncate, dilated Sporeling arises DISTAD of spore on germination filament as a + - paddle-shaped cuneiform thallus n = 9. REILLA "ruffle plant" erect + - basally attached undulate thallus Mediterranean: R1-7 notarisii monoecious [Allorge 1932], bialata,helicophylla, parisii, cossoniana, sersuensis, numidica, R8 protandrous-monoecious AFFINIS San Francisco,CA Canary Islands + occurs Uttar Pradesh R9 purpureospora [Wigglesworth] S.Af + alatospora "shoot tip circinnate" - check which - R 10 americana Oglala-CA R11 capensis S.Af. R12 echinospora S-SW Af. R13 halophila Victoria Australia salt-tolerant R14 spiculata W. vic, Australia R15-16 Argentina gamundiae [hassel] pampae [hassel] [check position: Sidewise, specialized laterally compressed -unusual Growth apical cell on two cutting faces.] R 827-844 S 799-827 RIELLA 827-844 // from Duckett 1982,3 VI-26 basic spermatid ultrastructure. Marchantiales ancestor prob like MONOCLEA a sporeling WITHOUT GERM TUBE + RHIZOID as Jungemrmannidae B. gametophyte APPLANATE + THALLOID but thallus SIMPLE apices protected by UNICELL slime papillae C gametangia archegonium with massive long neck, many neck canal cells in D gametangia produced acropetally on thallus surface protected only by overarching posterior scalelike outgrowths. E, SPOROPHYTES massive seta elongating Longitudinal sutures open capsule wall 901:1 MONOCLEA Advanced ONLY in gametangia aggregated dorsally - androecia receptacles gynoecia clustered - elaborate posterior scales fused laterally to thallus margins 901:2 916:10,12 NZ S Am. forsteri + Mex Af SAm gottschei lack air chambers pores ventral scales. VI - 82 LUNULARIA Mediterranean region Macvicar 1926 PRIMITIVE Characters A pseudoperianth lacking B several archegonia per gynoecium, derived from a condensed fertile thallus/lobe system. C. Both archegoniophores + antheridiophores arose from shoot apices- in apical incisions, eventually laterally displaced due to growth of one of two thallus lobes. D. Well developed SPOROPHYTE resembles MONOCLEA. - B and C are links to Marchantiales order. SPECIALIZATIONS in LUNULARIA discoid gemmae or receptacles; - very small SPORES - - SCALES with reniform, basally constricted appendages -- Air chambers in a sharply defined single layer in Lunularia and Marchantiae, but LUNULARIA lacks compound pores- even archegoniophores lack ventilating tissue -2- lack thickening bands in capsule walls -3- have regular four-valved capsule on long seta -4- absence of rhizoid furrow of archeogionphore -- 5 havwe sessile antheridiophore L-March-Con - crescentic ventral scales with basally constructed large appendage. LUN-CON green thin walled spores diff from CONOCEPHALUM in b + d above + absence of rhizoid furrow; well defined dehiscence to base of capsule 928:1 lack of capsule wall thickenings 928:4 deeply quadrilobed Conocephalum rep. by discoid gemmae rather than brood-branches; very small spores, reamaining one-celled at time of release. CON_LUN pseudolateral Conoc + Lun share identical thallus structure air chambers in a single layer- near identical ventral scales - similar thallus pores 929:8 + 932:5 short lived spores -faintly sculptured exine- carpocephalum stalk tardily elongating only at near-maturation of sporophytes; soft-textured soon collapsing after spore release. Sc? L prim then lines to C + M. WELL DEVELOPED SPOROPHYTES;; FOOT SPHERICAL - end with seta flattened;; ARCHEGONIATE stalk lacks rhizoid furrow or air chambers - is weak, translucent. Young gynoecium surrounded by basal cluster of hyaline arachnoid margined scales, bracts forming whitish "tuft" prior to maturation, which forms capillary system favoring fertiization as in Athalamia. Jungermannidae subclass intercalate more mitotic divisions prior to initial MEIOSIS - scores of spores per elater- Schistochilidae. But Aytoniaceae no mitotic division following spore-elater division so 4:1 S:E In Marchantia spores become larger. elaters reduced in Corsinia or spore-elater division suppressed in derived later-evolved Riccineae.


 


Ordovician spores Charles Wellman Sheffield

 

Charles Wellman, Jane Gray Strangers in a strange land Could the earliest forests have been dominated by tree-sized fungi? Henry Gee investigates. 4 July 2000 HENRY GEE Tree-sized fungi may have dominated the earliest forests on earth. So suggests the last paper of Jane Gray of the University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon. Gray, who died at the beginning of this year, was one of the prodigious talents of palaeobotany1, the study of fossil plants. She specialized in the colonization of the land by plants, more than 460 million years ago. In her very last work2, co-authored with Charles H. Wellman of the University of Sheffield, UK, Gray reviews the state of our understanding of the Earth's earliest land plants, setting out a bold agenda for future research. Wellman and Gray sketch the beginnings of an understanding of the Earth at an epochal period in its history -- when the bare continents started to acquire their clothing of green. The surprise is how alien this world seems in comparison to the vegetation of today. Until the mid-1980s, conventional wisdom had the colonization of the land occurring in the Silurian and Devonian Periods (from around 439 million years ago.) Gray almost singlehandedly overturned this view, presenting evidence for a far earlier colonization, in the mid-Ordovician, around 450 million years ago. Today, the earliest spores of land plants come from rocks 470 million years ago, and it is possible that the first land plants became established earlier than this. By 'plants', the researchers mean the so-called 'higher' plants: mosses, ferns and seed plants and their allies. However, the precise identity of the earliest land plants remains uncertain because they have completely disappeared, all except for their tough spores -- just like Alice's Cheshire Cat disappeared, leaving only its mysterious smile hanging in the air. Gray and Wellman think that the earliest land plants may have been similar, or related to, present-day mosses and liverworts. True 'vascular plants' (the group that includes ferns, horsetails, clubmosses, gymnosperms and flowering plants) appeared later: the earliest certainly known vascular plant was Cooksonia, a tiny, frail thing that grew in Scotland almost 430 million years ago. But here the enigmas start. Cooksonia was in some respects very primitive -- and in others, surprisingly advanced. This makes it hard to relate it to any modern group of vascular plant. The same applies to the fossilized spores of moss- and liverwort-like plants. It could be that the plants that shed these spores were completely different from the mosses and liverworts alive today. Writing in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B2, Gray and Wellman also discuss the nature of the 'nematophytes'. These are fossils of plants totally different from anything on Earth today. Once abundant, these confusing bundles of tubes could have been related to fungi. There are fossils of one nematophyte species, the trunk-like Prototaxites, which are a metre in diameter. Although enigmatic, nematophyte fossils are relatively common in deposits containing the débris of early land plants. Could tree-sized fungi have dominated the earliest forests? It is an image straight out of Alice in Wonderland, that poses a challenge suitably controversial for the swan song of one of the greats of palaeobotany. References Shear, W. A. Obituary: Jane Gray (1929-2000). Nature 405>, 34, (2000). Wellman, C. H. & Gray, J. The microfossil record of early land plants. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 355, 717 - 732 (2000). © Nature News Service / Macmillan Magazines Ltd 2001

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