Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos


Colleen Silcox and Jennifer Hershey in Forks girls basketball 2002 //// MARCHANTIIDAE subclass structural development gametangia - reduced sporophytes - capsule wall always unistratose - usually seta abbreviated or absent.- 3 tissue differentiation oil-body-bearing v. free cells - 4 -nat. sporogenesis large water-disseminated spores v. wind in Jungermannidae -5 sporeling development -6 di-polymorphic rhizoids except Sphaerocarpales - 7 spermatid ultrastructure NEGATIVE CRITERIA a. apical growth does not involve tetrahedral apical cell [v. Jungermannidae] -b. no evidence of ancestral triradial leafy type [unless fossil Naiadita is related] but p. 758 ancestry presumed for in or near Jungermannidae -c. no pre-Mesozoic fossils -d. continental climate - seasonal dryness -e generally large spores, not wind transport germination by germ tube and rhizoid -- chlorophyllose sporeling development - at some distance from spore - ecesis on friable soil or silt - Marchantioid spore may be covered whereas Jungermannidae are surface germinators. - except MONOCLEA MARCHANTIIDAE adapt to dry conditions by SHORT GAMETOPHYTIC LFE CYCLES -- DURABLE LARGE SPORES in Sphaerocarpales and/or GAMETOPHYTIC DROUGHT RESISTANCE in MARCHANTIALES - salt pan MONOCARPUS hass all three. p 756 Sporophyte a. in MONOCLEA well developed -b. in Marchantia short seta, small foot - includes Naiadita fossil -c. RICCIA no seta, little foot, sporogonium wall resorbed before spore matures -- GAMETOPHYTE a. radial symmetry only in fossil NAIADITA -b. Erect, with dorsal wing[s] + two rows of leaf scales RIELLA aquatic c. dorsiventral leafy Sphaerocarpos -d. Thallose dorsiventral little tissue differentiation MONOCLEA, MONOSELINIUM -e. Thallose dorsiventral with air chambers and pores Marchantia f. RICCIA like -e- but WITHOUT air chambers/pores BT VERTICAL AIR CANALS iin otherwise solid thallus. Lakes and rills. /// semidesert Mannia, Targionia caves + rooftops Cyathodium Riccia adults may be neotenic with ancestral juvenile characters. Wind-dissemination is retained in Haplomitrium, Blasia, Monoclea, Lunularia, some Marchantiaceae - thin walls less than 35 micron spores - short spore viability a few one-two pre-meiotic divisions. p. 758 Jungermannidae vs Marchantiidae - sporophyte structure shares division into foot, seta, capsule. Young capsule wall green, photosynthetic w. annular or U-shaped thickenings on wall cells. elaters simple - Linear filamentous embryo found in both. - Chl small numerous v. anthocerotae plate shaped, large. bridging J-M gap Naiadita, Sphaerocarpales, Monocleales, p 759 ponds, lakes seasonal fluctuations for Marchantiids - high light intensities except Monocleales- disturbed habitats fewer vascular competitors -- In Monocleales after spore-elater division repeated MITOTIC divisions of sister cell of elater mother-cell to- 8-9 sporocytes to one elaterocyte thus 32-36 spore/elater ratio. 760 If earliest hepatics riverine- but with pond periodicity LARGE SPORES BURIED IN SILT + NOURISHED FOR TIME PERIOD. Were small thin-wall numerous spores pleisiomorphic in Lunularia, Conocephalum, Marchantia? // MARCHANTIIDAE pp 794-827 notes on Rudolph Schuster Hepaticae [liverworts]794 NAIADITA gametophyte erect axis - three equal rows unlobed leaves. MONOCLEALES sporophyte large foot massive elongating seta like CALOBRYALES archegonia + sex organ ontogeny resemble Calobryales mature archegonium has very lng nech sixteen-twenty neck canal cells Ontogeny like Haplomitrium. LUNULARIA least reduced sporophyte in Marchantiales/ clearly extruded on a rather distinct seta at maturity unique in Marchantiales in regularly four-walled CAPSULE 928:1 Multiple fertilization + _ multiple sporophytes per gynoecium occur regularly CRONISIA simple acropetal occ of gametangia dorsal on gametophyte 795 MONOCLEA -LUNULARIA spore-elater division PRIMITIVE trait PROTOTYPE GAMETOPHYTE ERECT growing by TETRAHEDRAL APICAL CELL -2- S organs massive ontogeny primitve archeg w 16-20 neck canal cells 3 S. large foot, massive elongating seta caps dehiscing by four lines -4- MONLCEA-LUNULARIA-HAPLOMITRIUM fertilization of one archegonium DOES NOT INHIBIT others in same gynoecium 2-4 sporophytes in one gynoecium in M forsteri -797 MARCHANTIIDAE share - 1- method of division of ZYGOTE - 2 - UNISTRATOSE CAP WALL 3 OIL BODIES singly in specialized choroplast-free specialized cells IDIOBLASTS -- of thallus -4individual 'incvoluncres' 'perianth around each fertile archegonium EXCEPT MONOCLEA and many genera of Marchantiales [ceae?]. -5- dev, of sporangium from ENTIRE EPIBASAL CELL (seta and foot from HYPOBASAL CELL) 6- reduction of foot and seta -7- large spore size -8- tendency to TETRADS until near maturity with contrasting INNER-OUTER faces largely unknown in Jungermannidae + other Hepatics. Differences MONOCLEALES Rhizoid though position DIMORPHIC All SIMILAR DIAMETER -798-- most smooth thallus -uniformly parenchymatous cells without pores, air chambers. -3- CAPSULE singly levted on elongating SETA opens by SINGLE SLIT ON ONE SIDE -4- OIL CELLS WITH CHLOROPLASTS 5- No ventral scales ventral appendages one-celled clavate slime papillae. N = 9. MARCHANTIALES Rhizoids always DIMORPHIC some smooth some pegged THALLUS +- ventral + dorsal parenchyma Capsule short no seta - opens by lid. CLEISTOCARPOUS or irregular rupture or by several valves. OIL CELLS LACK CHLOROPLASTS. (one) two or more rows MULTICELL VENTRAL SCALES many N from 8,9,10,12,15,18, 24, 27 SPHAEROCARPALES n= 8 or 9 UNISTRATOSE LEAVES or scales W.O.WITHOUT pores + air chambers. only smooth rhizoids all equal diameter ANTHERIDIA oval or spherical +- surr by individual involucres archegonia with two canal cells. Absent spore-elater division. no elaters cleistocarpous. OIL CELLS LACKING or similar to CHLORPHYLLOSE cells. in size and form. BEILATERAL SYMMETRY except radial fossil NAIADITA. Only RIELLLA has OIL CELLS which are same size as chlorophyllose cells. Other Sphaerocarpales have UNICEL SLIME PAPILLAE SPHAEROCARPALES males usually smaller except monoecious RIELLA species -799 WA to CHILE Sphaerocarpos texanus S1 WA-MEX-TX-NC + Eur + Medit into? Ausl. S2 michelli TX S3 donnellii FL S4 drewei [Wigglesworth] CA S5 hians [Haynes] NW interior Idaho? S6 cristatus [Hower] CA S7 muccilloi [Viana] s. Brazil S8 stipitatus [Bisch ex Lindenb.] Chile Geothallus tuberosus Campb. rare CA V-810 "IF imperfectly dissociating Sphaerocarpos-like spores of SAGENOTETRADITES Lower Carboniferous,[=Mississippian] western Australia were from mudflats, seasonal environment [compare Ulva, Enteromorpha algae] perhaps [Sphaerocarpales] group existed in Paleozoic, so gametophytic similarities of Sphaerocarposa to fossombronia may prove less acciental than here assumed." S. texani, michelii are WINTER ANNUALS on BROKEN SOIL December-April often only February-March + aestivate as spore stage Sex chromosomes in plants were first studied in Sphaerocarpos 1919 Allen. Large spore tetrads wqith 2m and 2f individuals have potential for genetic research like Ascomycetes, yeast. Strikingly heterothallic male pigmented female green or weak with continuous flasks. In genus Geothallus scarcely heterothallic sizes. B. Apices of shoots become tuberous in dry season like Petallophyllum C. spores with FREE FACE almost smooth. Germination PROXIMAL rather than DISTAL. Doyle 1962 revives genus Geothallus valid but not far from Sphaerocarpos. S. texanus starts life cycle late fall October-November intermittent winter growth Spores mature February to April prior to start of cultivation old corn + cotton fields. -827 RIELLA small scale like multicellular -- 827 gametophyte bilateral symmetry at right angles to thallus surface soooth walled rhizoids basally on one side conspicuous undulate thin delicate unistratose WING overarches APEX of postically coiled AXIS shoot apex appears CIRCINNATE 18 species far west Riella affinis, + Riella americana 829 ADJACENT WING, SOMETIMES DIMORPHIC lateral leaf + ventral scales OIL BODIES LARGE, singly in scattered cells devoid of chloroplasts. Asexual reproduction by brood-bodies (GEMMAE) ventral side of axis Antheridia singly developed in acropetal series oval, whitish. Solitary archegonia by pyriform or bottle-shape PERICHAETIA sessile distally open develop on acropetal succession right and left of wing. Sporophyte [associated nurse cells] seta slight Foot near spherical Cleistocarpous. very large spores released individually on decay of capsule wall External face sharply SPINOSE spine tips may be truncate, dilated Sporeling arises DISTAD of spore on germination filament as a + - paddle-shaped cuneiform thallus n = 9. REILLA "ruffle plant" erect + - basally attached undulate thallus Mediterranean: R1-7 notarisii monoecious [Allorge 1932], bialata,helicophylla, parisii, cossoniana, sersuensis, numidica, R8 protandrous-monoecious AFFINIS San Francisco,CA Canary Islands + occurs Uttar Pradesh R9 purpureospora [Wigglesworth] S.Af + alatospora "shoot tip circinnate" - check which - R 10 americana Oglala-CA R11 capensis S.Af. R12 echinospora S-SW Af. R13 halophila Victoria Australia salt-tolerant R14 spiculata W. vic, Australia R15-16 Argentina gamundiae [hassel] pampae [hassel] [check position: Sidewise, specialized laterally compressed -unusual Growth apical cell on two cutting faces.] R 827-844 S 799-827 RIELLA 827-844 // from Duckett 1982,3 VI-26 basic spermatid ultrastructure. Marchantiales ancestor prob like MONOCLEA a sporeling WITHOUT GERM TUBE + RHIZOID as Jungemrmannidae B. gametophyte APPLANATE + THALLOID but thallus SIMPLE apices protected by UNICELL slime papillae C gametangia archegonium with massive long neck, many neck canal cells in D gametangia produced acropetally on thallus surface protected only by overarching posterior scalelike outgrowths. E, SPOROPHYTES massive seta elongating Longitudinal sutures open capsule wall 901:1 MONOCLEA Advanced ONLY in gametangia aggregated dorsally - androecia receptacles gynoecia clustered - elaborate posterior scales fused laterally to thallus margins 901:2 916:10,12 NZ S Am. forsteri + Mex Af SAm gottschei lack air chambers pores ventral scales. VI - 82 LUNULARIA Mediterranean region Macvicar 1926 PRIMITIVE Characters A pseudoperianth lacking B several archegonia per gynoecium, derived from a condensed fertile thallus/lobe system. C. Both archegoniophores + antheridiophores arose from shoot apices- in apical incisions, eventually laterally displaced due to growth of one of two thallus lobes. D. Well developed SPOROPHYTE resembles MONOCLEA. - B and C are links to Marchantiales order. SPECIALIZATIONS in LUNULARIA discoid gemmae or receptacles; - very small SPORES - - SCALES with reniform, basally constricted appendages -- Air chambers in a sharply defined single layer in Lunularia and Marchantiae, but LUNULARIA lacks compound pores- even archegoniophores lack ventilating tissue -2- lack thickening bands in capsule walls -3- have regular four-valved capsule on long seta -4- absence of rhizoid furrow of archeogionphore -- 5 havwe sessile antheridiophore L-March-Con - crescentic ventral scales with basally constructed large appendage. LUN-CON green thin walled spores diff from CONOCEPHALUM in b + d above + absence of rhizoid furrow; well defined dehiscence to base of capsule 928:1 lack of capsule wall thickenings 928:4 deeply quadrilobed Conocephalum rep. by discoid gemmae rather than brood-branches; very small spores, reamaining one-celled at time of release. CON_LUN pseudolateral Conoc + Lun share identical thallus structure air chambers in a single layer- near identical ventral scales - similar thallus pores 929:8 + 932:5 short lived spores -faintly sculptured exine- carpocephalum stalk tardily elongating only at near-maturation of sporophytes; soft-textured soon collapsing after spore release. Sc? L prim then lines to C + M. WELL DEVELOPED SPOROPHYTES;; FOOT SPHERICAL - end with seta flattened;; ARCHEGONIATE stalk lacks rhizoid furrow or air chambers - is weak, translucent. Young gynoecium surrounded by basal cluster of hyaline arachnoid margined scales, bracts forming whitish "tuft" prior to maturation, which forms capillary system favoring fertiization as in Athalamia. Jungermannidae subclass intercalate more mitotic divisions prior to initial MEIOSIS - scores of spores per elater- Schistochilidae. But Aytoniaceae no mitotic division following spore-elater division so 4:1 S:E In Marchantia spores become larger. elaters reduced in Corsinia or spore-elater division suppressed in derived later-evolved Riccineae.
Year: 2002