Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos

 

81.
{Z} Jack Barrett's mother Catherine Agnes Buckley born South Boston l857 or l858 deceased June 8, l889 of unknown causes p 11 #81 WEB PAGE ELEVEN has Four photos from West Roxbury Transcript 1984 article and four photos of Bertha Pollack+ family + Esther

 

Records indicate Catherine Agnes Buckley was born October 1857 or l858. She married John Robert Barrett April 29, l884, the year her parents moved to Melrose after owning property l878-l884 at 469 East Eighth Street. Earlier her father moved frequently as a teamster. He lived in l855 at Boston Wharf at the north end of A Street, in n area later filled in.The left photo is definitely Jack Barrett's mother. The right picture is probably her but may be her sister Ellen, born l860, died l875. A number of Ellen's books were in the Barrett attic in l969 and showed she lived at #8 Grimes Street in l877 between West Seventh and West Eighth Streets one block from the old St. Augustine School she attended - it was replaced by the present school building l892. The family also lived one year on Clapp Street, now Loring Street. Catherine's parents came to Boston from Templemartin parish in l851 or l852 before the birth of their eldest son JohnBuckley December l852.Immigrant Dan Buckley from Moskeigh townland was the son of JohnBuckley and Catherine Murphy, probably born about 1827. Four brothers are known - Michael and Jerry remained in Cork, while Thomas and John Buckley had families in Milford, Massachusetts, whom Jack Barrett visited l890's but they have died out - the last beingJohn McGrath who died l969.He was active in World War I Veterans affairs Jack's mother's mother was Mary Ann O Farrell l831-l896 from Kilbarry, a neighboring townland one quarter mile west of Moskeigh. Eveidence supports Jack Barrett's account that his grandfather arrived in Boston "with a bride on his arm." Dan Buckley used to pull Jack to school on a sled near Spot Pond,Melrose in the first grade l894. Mary Ann O Farrell Buckley encouraged him to study and use her piano in Melrose.Her l896 will is in the Middlesex county Courthouse East Cambridge.One of her ancestors Tim Farrell or O Farrell set up a gravestone in l779 in Templemartin churchyard when his daughter Ellen died at age 20. the family in Kilbarry have continued to bury there up until after World War II, although it is only in recent decades that indivudal tombstones have been used in old family plots. A history of Templemartin parish was published in l997. Jack's mother's mother's mother was Ellen O Mahony, who married Dan Farrell of Kilbarry and had daughters Margaret and Mary Ann, who came to Boston in l850s, and a son John whose family remained on the Kilbarry farm. These O Mahonys are said to have resided in Gurranes townland, Templeamrtin parish for hundreds of years and to be d3escended from high king Brian Boru, who at age eighty-eight defeated Danish invaders at Clontarf north of dublin on the Irish Easst Coast.The Kennedys also are descendants of Brian Boru. Other branches of the O Mahonys are at Castlelack and Old Park in the Bandon area. x


 

82.
Right photo dated l872 is John Buckley, brother of Jack Barrett's mother l852-l935 #82 p 11 {Z}

 

Left photo is probably Thomas Buckley born Mokeigh l835 died Milford,Massachusetts 1899.He had eight children - one born at sea l855 according to massachusetts records, but no grandchildren -intestate administration indicated a married daughter was the last survivor about 1920.The original photo is in album found l969 at 640 EastSeventh Street with printing that indicated photo was made at a Milford studio. There is a possibility this photo could be Tom's brother John, who came to USA much later and also settled in Milford and had five children -only one grandsonl John McGrath who served in Army World War I was active in Milford American Legion and died november l969 without issue.More important is right photo of John Buckley l582 -l935 - positively identified by Jack Barrett l969- he married Jennie Cain born Warrington near liverpool England and had family of nine - eldest Mrs. frances Driscoll born l887. sons John and Fred, and daughter Frances, Gertrude, Alice Agnes Lavinia, Dorothy. Only Frances Drscoll, John Buckley junior, and Lavinia Kroeger had children.This family were neighbors on Park and Baxter Streets Melrose eearly l890's when Jack Barrett and his widower father boarded with the senior Buckleys and john Buckley's sister minnie and Buckley, who looked after Jack by day.John Robert Barrett ion l892 bought two copies of the memoirs of Civil War General Ben Butler of massachusettts - one for himself and pne for brother-in=-law john Buckley.John Buckley worked as a pattern=-maker at Charlestown navy Yard Boston many years, and his nephew Jack Barrett visited him there l921 while aboard the destroyer TOUCEY.Prior to l993 thefts, the Barrett had a handwritten letter from John Buckley to Jack Barrett, authorizing him to keep books that belonged to Jack's aunt - john Buckley's sister Minnie - Mary Frances Buckley born Dec. 25, l867 died of spinal meningitis March l9l2 Minnie had a leather notebook which listed the address ofher uncle Michael Buckley of Moskeigh, with whom she corresponded around l903=l904 and also of her cousins in Milford. She and Maggie worked at Converse Rubber Company malden, and she look after her father Dan Buckoey who lived until April l9l0 -t o age about 83.John Buckley handwritten letter about the books had some light humorous touches a cponsiderable time after she passed away. Jack Barrett was very devoted to his aunt Minnie and sat at her bedside for two days not knowing if she could hear him with her terminal meningitis - hetalked but she was unable to respond if conscious.She and her sister Maggie and parents look after him froma aged one to age six


 

83.
Sophie and John on lava wall of front porch 2415 Ala Wai boulevard Waikiki #83 p 11

 

This photo appeared with June l984West Roxbury Transcript article on "Tracing a Family's History." Editor Jason Korell a native of concord, was of great assistance on Barrett memoirs and West Roxbury and Roslindale local history projects including Brook Farm. He marched to Quebec along Benedict Arnold's route through western Maine l975 in biCentennial. This photo shosaa lava rock and iron railing around one of two small porches in front of Barrett home. These porches were accessible from living room and front bedroon through glass French doors the Barrett never opened.Sophie liked seersucker dresses in warm, humid Waikiki, though clothes were in short supply early in the War. + Astronomers Discover Free-Floating Planets In The Orion Nebula The most sensitive survey ever undertaken of the region in the Orion Nebula where new stars are forming has revealed 13 "free-floating planets" as well as more than one hundred very young brown dwarfs. The discovery was made by Dr. Philip Lucas of the University of Hertfordshire and Dr. Patrick Roche of the University of Oxford using a new camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) in Hawaii. Their results will be published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Brown dwarfs are objects that might have become stars, but never accumulated sufficient material. With less than 8% of the Sun's mass, they did not heat up enough inside to trigger the nuclear reactions involving hydrogen that keep stars shining over long periods. Nevertheless, they do produce some nuclear energy for a short time (from deuterium, a rare isotope of hydrogen) if their mass exceeds 1.3% the Sun's mass -- about 13 times the mass of Jupiter. Astronomers regard this as the minimum mass for a brown dwarf.The new infrared survey of the Trapezium Cluster in the Orion Nebula, turned up 13 objects below the 13 Jupiter-mass threshold. The mass of the smallest is equivalent to no more than about 8 Jupiters. These objects have been dubbed "free-floating planets". They give off only residual heat left over from when they were born. By nature they are more like the giant planets of our solar system than stars. However, they do not orbit any star and drift through space by themselves. Only two similar objects have previously been discovered. (Japanese astronomers found them in the southern Chamaeleon Nebula.) The discovery of thirteen more in one cluster suggests that they might be very common. An infrared picture of the central part of the Orion Nebula constructed from the three separate images taken with UFTI (the UKIRT Fast Track Imager) on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. The three colors used in this false color image (blue, orange and red) correspond to infrared radiation with wavelengths twice as long. Hence, this picture shows Orion as we would see it if our eyes were sensitive to light of twice the wavelength they are actually capable of detecting. The picture shows stars, brown dwarfs and planets together with diffuse starlight, which is scattered by tiny particles of cosmic dust, and light emitted by energized gas. Infrared images are vital for this work, as they penetrate the dusty clouds and are able to pick up faint objects which cannot be seen in visible light images. Astronomers believe that most stars are born in giant molecular clouds -- vast clumps of cold gas and dust. The nearest such cloud lurks just behind the glowing gas of the Orion Nebula. The Trapezium cluster at the heart of the Orion Nebula has recently broken out of the dark molecular cloud. It is therefore the best place to look in order to find out about the creation of stars, brown dwarfs and free-floating planets in the rest of the Galaxy. The backdrop of the Orion Molecular Cloud obscures everything that lies behind it, which is very useful because it means that all the objects seen in this part of the sky are members of the cluster, except for perhaps a handful which lie in the foreground. Because brown dwarfs and free floating planets quickly cool down, they are easiest to find when they are young and still retain some heat from the formation process. The objects in the Trapezium cluster are mostly about one million years old -- very young compared to the five-billion-year age of the Sun. An interesting feature of this study is that no planets have been found under 8 Jupiter masses. It may indicate that there is a limit to how small these free-floating planets can be but even more sensitive surveys will be needed to confirm this. In the meantime UKIRT has been used to obtain spectra of about twenty of the brown dwarfs and planets. The results are still being analyzed but they show the signature of water vapor that is expected in relatively cool stars and brown dwarfs, at a temperature of a mere 2700 degrees Centigrade. The planets will eventually cool down to earthly temperatures but it is unlikely that they could ever sustain life. Although the total number of brown dwarfs and planets in the Trapezium may be similar to the number of stars, individually they have less mass. If this a typical cluster, brown dwarfs and planets do not contribute significantly to the dark matter that many astronomers believe pervades the universe. This survey is one of the first projects undertaken with the new infrared camera UFTI, the UKIRT Fast Track Imager. It is the most sensitive search yet conducted for low mass stellar and sub-stellar objects. For all the objects they detected, Lucas and Roche measured the strength of radiation given off at three standard wavelengths in the near infrared (known as I, J and H). They used this data to deduce the mass, luminosity and temperature of the objects. UFTI was built by a team headed by Roche and Lucas at Oxford University in 1998, with the help of several British universities http://www.stargazing.net/kas/eFOCUS/nasa.html#M42--


 

84.
Michael Dailey Barrett, circa 1870 p11-84 {Z}

 

From a tintype taken about 1870. Michael Dailey Barrett was the elder brother of Jack Barrtt's father, who lived in South Boston.He was the eldest of four surviving children of Robert Barrett from Cork, who came to Boston l841 and his wife Catherine daly. There are indication in records that another boy may have been born and died around l850. When the parents died, Michael went to the Middle West and worked a `s a butcher. In a l9ll letter his first cousin Robert Joseph Mehegan senior, printer at Boston Herald states Michael visited Boston "when the Grand Army were having their Convention in boston in l89l and then was for a time in Somerville New Jersey." Records indicate the convention was August l890, and there is no evidence Michael was a veteran - he was probably too young -soRobert may simply be using the Convention to estimate the date of Michael-s visit, whcih was when Robert's mother Ellen Barrett Mehegan was still alive in Cambridge - before l895.The only later information on Michael was a letter in l9l5fropm Michaels younger sister Kate - at 2043 Polk Street San Francisco. She was replying to a letter frpomjack Barrett, who had hear Michael might be in Lewes Delaware - she said, "It's news to me" This letter also commented on President Woodrow Wilson' s itish press secretary Joseph Tumulty, on women;s sufferage and the violent labor agitation of the I.W.W. International Workers of the World "I hope they go to Katchatka or Patagonia- I don;t care which!.When the immigrants died in l859 and Feb. l863, the Barrett Girls Mary and Kate born about l852 and l856 wnet to tloive with their father's sister Ellen Barrett and her husband john Mehegan at 530 East Fourth Street South Boston near present Gate of Heaven Church- then after completion of transcontinental railroad l869 they rtraveled l871 to San Francisc0 where Mary born l852 became a Presenation teaching nun in Sonoma and Berkeley ,and Kate lived with her aunts from Cork on Polk Street San Francisco.Jack Barrett's father went to live withbaker MichaelThompson at 640 East Seventh Street - after l870 spent some tiome with his bnrother Michael ion middle west, then returned to Boston before l875 and learned plumbing trade remaining in boston and Melrose. Michael is not known to have had any family.---June 22 text;I have been researching whether someday it will be possible to remove mass from the sun. to keep the earth habitable many millions of years longer, and energy sources for long term human survival. Do you know of anyone interested in the problem, at NASA or universities or privately? Names, addresses, and E mails of interested persons will be appreciated. In 1992 I read the Caldeira-Kasting NATURE article estimating that the sun becomes about ten per cent warmer every billion years, and about 1995 I attended a talk by James Kasting at Harvard, which was hosted by Professor Heinrich Holland, the paleosol specialist. [ Professors John Imbrie and Warren Prell of Brown University participated in discussion. I have been interested in the problem whether life on earth can be prolonged by removing mass from sun. It appeared extremely difficult for space ships to penetrate close to sun's surface, but April 7 I realized that heating the surface of the sun would increase loss of mass in solar wind. It will take a great deal of energy to achieve optimum effect, but the time frame would be very long. Fusion powered lasers, reflectors or greenhouse gases to reflect sun's own energy, magnetically contained anti-matter, disruption of sun's surface to expose hotter interior gas would be strategies, or beaming energy from hot objects in deep space or using nearby brown dwarfs as hydrogen source for fusion all come to mind. Since 1996 I have been at 113 West. Third St., Port Angeles WA98362-2824. I have written a series of essays on future of sun and life on earth- In the essay below please note nine NUMBERED Energy sources - 1. Fusion Powered Lasers orbiting sun 2. Reflectors around sun 3. A greenhouse gas around sun to warm its surface - this probably would need to be contained by a strong magnetic field to keep it in place 4. Antimatter - magnetically contained - probably manufactured in deep space as a means to bring energy here in 'storage' 5. Disrupt relatively cool sun surface 5500 degrees Celsius and expose hotter layers beneath deeper 6. Develop technology to beam high energy long distances from far away hot objects - periphery of black holes and neutron stars - possibly bend the intense beams of pulsars 7. Find nearby sub-star "Brown dwarfs" that probably exist within two or three light years from earth and utilize their hydrogen or hydrogen clouds in space for fusion. 8. Oort cloud comets within half a light year from sun as hydrogen source. 9. Design heat resistant space ships. Three other points - In this essay you will see discussion whether helium concentrations occur in sunspots. It would be desirable to remove a portion of helium as well as the lighter hydrogen. Second, success in reducing mass of sun would change orbits of earth and planets - they would move outerward, which might be helpfuul in long run but would need to be calculated very carefully. - About seventy per cent of the sun's 433,000 miles radius, heat from fusion comes out by radiation through very hot dense, plasma. In the outer thirty per cent of the sun's radius - which must be 129,000 miles - more than five times circumference of earth, plasma convection is the main way the heat comes to surface. I want to learn more about this convection process. One important technique is helioseismology. Whether there is any way future engineers could affect this convection process I don't know at present. I have seen estimates it takes a million years for energy to get to the surface after it is generated by fusion at the core. - - John Barrett Remainder is April 22 essay: SUN MASS Removal STAGES- Blaise Pascal -= Alpha Centauri - LEAH - RACHEL :- Astronomy Professor David Latham has suggested that it will take a great deal of energy to achieve the ideal maximum amount of mass removal from the sun to keep the earth habitable as long as possible. However the time frame is very long. The basic equation is mv squared or m DELTA v squared, where m is the desired amount of mass removed, and Delta V is the difference between starting velocity and escape velocity. I believe that "m" the ideal amount of mass to remove over four or five billion years is not precisely known at present. The optimum rate of removal is likely to be a curve rather than a straight line. Too rapid a beginning might trigger an ice age or orbital instability of earth and planets. The longest-lived stars have 7.5 to eight per cent of the mass of the sun and are estimated to remain on Main Sequence with stable heat output about five thousand trillion years [5 x 10 to twelfth power]. In atlas of the Universe 1998 I see an estimate that sun equals 333,000 earth masses. Suppose that in four billion years, it was desired to remove eighty per cent of present solar mass - this is very likely more than enough, but illustrates the nature of the calculation. This would mean if one proceeded in a linear fashion, that one per cent of solar mass should be eliminated in the first fifty million years, dividing four billion by eighty. So 3,330 earth masses would be removed in fifty million years, or 66.6 earth masses per one million years - around one earth mass every fifteen thousand years. The acceleration would be complex. I have heard the escape velocity at the surface of the sun estimated between 384 miles per second and 500 kilometers per second. However, the heat of the solar surface 5500 C and the much higher heat and convective motion just below the surface may contribute significantly to the starting energy as we come to understand how the existing solar wind forms and the stellar winds of other stars,including those hotter than the sun. For seven years I have been studying whether it would be possible to remove ANY mass from the sun. I call this stage "Leah" after the older first wife of the Biblical patriarch Jacob. Before we get to phase Leah, where we might experimentally try to remove a small amount of mass from the sun to observe technology, there would be phase "Blaise Pascal" where we would do thought experiments and test ideas theroetically. If the technology appeared risky, there might be a phase Alpha where we might test procedures on the star Alpha Centauri before working on the sun. As a target, perhaps an experimental small operation to remove a little mass from the sun might be targeted for the year 2099, within the lifetime of persons now living. Since April 7, 2000 a number of possible technologies have come to mind, but they will require huge amounts of energy.Most of the technologies involve heating the solar surface to increase the amount of mass that escapes in the solar wind. At present it has been estimated about one hundred trillionth of solar mass escapes each year in naturally occurring solar wind. Hopefully, the sun's own energy can be utilized in one way or another.It is conceivable that over thousands and millions of years ways can be found to store energy from giant objects deep in space,and then beam or transport it Most technologies involve application of some form of heat to the solar surface. There may also be the possibilty of disrupting the surface chromosphere and exposing slightly deeper layers which are much hotter. In the order I have thought of them, these are techniques for warming the solar surface- locally or around the entire surface. [1] Lasers - possibly utilizing hydrogen from the sun itself for fusion power. [2] Reflectors or mirrors to aim the sun's own heat back at the surface. [3} A greenhouse gas - if one can be maintained stably in the lower corona, this would be the ultimate mirror or reflector. Extremely high million-degree C. temperatures occur in portions of the lower corona, and the forces that cause them are not completely known- very likely magnetism is involved. This strategy would take mass relatively uniformly from all areas of the surface. It would be desirable to remove mass from the polar regions of the sun, so that it would travel away from the orbit of the earth and other planets. [4] Disruption of the cooler chromosphere to expose hotter interior gas or plasma. [5] ANTI-MATTER- would be extremely effective annihiliating some of the sun's mass and generating astonishing heat if ANTIMATTER can be found, manufactured and handled and contained, as by very strong magnetic fields. There might be advantages in concentrating ther ANTIMATTER at very low temperatures near absolute zero possibly utilizing superconductivity to assist handling, which is far in the future .[6] collect energy from hot distant sources such as black holes, neutron stars,supernovas, giant stars and beam it to solar system[7] find nearby BROWN dwarfs believed to exist within a few light years of earth and utilize their hydrogen or intragalactic clouds for FUSION. [8] Utilize Oort Cloud comets gravitationally bound to solar system as hydrogren source. [9] Design heat-resistant space ships that can withstand tmperatures above 3000 degrees C. These might use refractory materials such as tantalum carbide which melts above 3800 C - various forms of carbon perhaps fullerene or nanotube - tungsten, thorium oxide. Albert Brown of Joyce suggests solar heat might be turned to electricity, at the same time cooling outer surface and powering space craft and lasers. He also suggests comet ice might contribute - a space ship could even operate for a time placed inside comet ice. The sun is presently about seventy-one per cent hydrogen, twenty-seven per cent helium, and two per cent heavier elements. The removal of helium probably would favor stability, but the helium tends to be concentrated near the core, as David Latham pointed out in 1995. Recently Sean Root of Port Angeles heard a broadcast on a TV history channel in which something was said about "helium bubbles" observed in sunspots. If this is true and if they can be targeted, a substantial amount of helium over a long time can be removed from the convective outer zone of the sun,which constitutes thirty per cent of solar radius and sixty-five per cent of volume. Doug Wadsworth of Port Angeles and Western Washington University at Bellinghan points out that if it is possible to reduce solar mass significantly, orbits of planets will be affected by reduced gravitational pull, and planets will move further from the sun. This will help delay or prevent over-heating the earth and may be of great long run importance. Effects on earth and future colonies on satellites of outer planets need careful calculation. It appears likely a time will come when much of the world's population will move to satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Mars is very small. Colonies can be sent to distant space, but moving all persons and animals and plants is much more difficult, but relevant to democratic planning and popular will. Someday it will be possible, but it is important to gain time by keeping earth habitable as long as possible. Huge amounts of energy will be required either for survival on earth, where overheating of sun will become a problem- or on the outer planets, where fusion energy will eventually be the main fuel- how much hydrogen would be needed for 2-3 billion year survival on outer planets? It comes to mind that the outer planets are mostly hydrogen - it is sugggested their cores may be largely metallic hydrogen, which conducts electricity under pressure. A recent issue of Astronomy magazine suggests that brown drawfs are likely to turn up within a few light years' distance from the earth. They might be excellent fuel sources, whether for my project of reducing mass of sun, or for heating life on the rocky outer satellites. I still hope the best source of energy will be the sun itself. If advanced civilizations already exist in Milky Way galaxy, might we detect them diverting pulsar beams to places where they need energy? I see much progress on non-baryonic matter and other topics. I found article on June 1999 observation of sun's galactic rotation relative to galactic center - but I am still looking for more on its motion relative to neighboring stars and galactic plane.


 

85.
Pollack family - in back Bertha and SaM IN FRONT JASON AND THALIA p 11-85

 

THEY WERE ATTENDING a wedding of Pollack cousins in southern Massachusetts (Sharon?) 1950 ---June 22 text;I have been researching whether someday it will be possible to remove mass from the sun. to keep the earth habitable many millions of years longer, and energy sources for long term human survival. Do you know of anyone interested in the problem, at NASA or universities or privately? Names, addresses, and E mails of interested persons will be appreciated. In 1992 I read the Caldeira-Kasting NATURE article estimating that the sun becomes about ten per cent warmer every billion years, and about 1995 I attended a talk by James Kasting at Harvard, which was hosted by Professor Heinrich Holland, the paleosol specialist. [ Professors John Imbrie and Warren Prell of Brown University participated in discussion. I have been interested in the problem whether life on earth can be prolonged by removing mass from sun. It appeared extremely difficult for space ships to penetrate close to sun's surface, but April 7 I realized that heating the surface of the sun would increase loss of mass in solar wind. It will take a great deal of energy to achieve optimum effect, but the time frame would be very long. Fusion powered lasers, reflectors or greenhouse gases to reflect sun's own energy, magnetically contained anti-matter, disruption of sun's surface to expose hotter interior gas would be strategies, or beaming energy from hot objects in deep space or using nearby brown dwarfs as hydrogen source for fusion all come to mind. Since 1996 I have been at 113 West. Third St., Port Angeles WA98362-2824. I have written a series of essays on future of sun and life on earth- In the essay below please note nine NUMBERED Energy sources - 1. Fusion Powered Lasers orbiting sun 2. Reflectors around sun 3. A greenhouse gas around sun to warm its surface - this probably would need to be contained by a strong magnetic field to keep it in place 4. Antimatter - magnetically contained - probably manufactured in deep space as a means to bring energy here in 'storage' 5. Disrupt relatively cool sun surface 5500 degrees Celsius and expose hotter layers beneath deeper 6. Develop technology to beam high energy long distances from far away hot objects - periphery of black holes and neutron stars - possibly bend the intense beams of pulsars 7. Find nearby sub-star "Brown dwarfs" that probably exist within two or three light years from earth and utilize their hydrogen or hydrogen clouds in space for fusion. 8. Oort cloud comets within half a light year from sun as hydrogen source. 9. Design heat resistant space ships. Three other points - In this essay you will see discussion whether helium concentrations occur in sunspots. It would be desirable to remove a portion of helium as well as the lighter hydrogen. Second, success in reducing mass of sun would change orbits of earth and planets - they would move outerward, which might be helpfuul in long run but would need to be calculated very carefully. - About seventy per cent of the sun's 433,000 miles radius, heat from fusion comes out by radiation through very hot dense, plasma. In the outer thirty per cent of the sun's radius - which must be 129,000 miles - more than five times circumference of earth, plasma convection is the main way the heat comes to surface. I want to learn more about this convection process. One important technique is helioseismology. Whether there is any way future engineers could affect this convection process I don't know at present. I have seen estimates it takes a million years for energy to get to the surface after it is generated by fusion at the core. - - John Barrett Remainder is April 22 essay: SUN MASS Removal STAGES- Blaise Pascal -= Alpha Centauri - LEAH - RACHEL :- Astronomy Professor David Latham has suggested that it will take a great deal of energy to achieve the ideal maximum amount of mass removal from the sun to keep the earth habitable as long as possible. However the time frame is very long. The basic equation is mv squared or m DELTA v squared, where m is the desired amount of mass removed, and Delta V is the difference between starting velocity and escape velocity. I believe that "m" the ideal amount of mass to remove over four or five billion years is not precisely known at present. The optimum rate of removal is likely to be a curve rather than a straight line. Too rapid a beginning might trigger an ice age or orbital instability of earth and planets. The longest-lived stars have 7.5 to eight per cent of the mass of the sun and are estimated to remain on Main Sequence with stable heat output about five thousand trillion years [5 x 10 to twelfth power]. In atlas of the Universe 1998 I see an estimate that sun equals 333,000 earth masses. Suppose that in four billion years, it was desired to remove eighty per cent of present solar mass - this is very likely more than enough, but illustrates the nature of the calculation. This would mean if one proceeded in a linear fashion, that one per cent of solar mass should be eliminated in the first fifty million years, dividing four billion by eighty. So 3,330 earth masses would be removed in fifty million years, or 66.6 earth masses per one million years - around one earth mass every fifteen thousand years. The acceleration would be complex. I have heard the escape velocity at the surface of the sun estimated between 384 miles per second and 500 kilometers per second. However, the heat of the solar surface 5500 C and the much higher heat and convective motion just below the surface may contribute significantly to the starting energy as we come to understand how the existing solar wind forms and the stellar winds of other stars,including those hotter than the sun. For seven years I have been studying whether it would be possible to remove ANY mass from the sun. I call this stage "Leah" after the older first wife of the Biblical patriarch Jacob. Before we get to phase Leah, where we might experimentally try to remove a small amount of mass from the sun to observe technology, there would be phase "Blaise Pascal" where we would do thought experiments and test ideas theroetically. If the technology appeared risky, there might be a phase Alpha where we might test procedures on the star Alpha Centauri before working on the sun. As a target, perhaps an experimental small operation to remove a little mass from the sun might be targeted for the year 2099, within the lifetime of persons now living. Since April 7, 2000 a number of possible technologies have come to mind, but they will require huge amounts of energy.Most of the technologies involve heating the solar surface to increase the amount of mass that escapes in the solar wind. At present it has been estimated about one hundred trillionth of solar mass escapes each year in naturally occurring solar wind. Hopefully, the sun's own energy can be utilized in one way or another.It is conceivable that over thousands and millions of years ways can be found to store energy from giant objects deep in space,and then beam or transport it Most technologies involve application of some form of heat to the solar surface. There may also be the possibilty of disrupting the surface chromosphere and exposing slightly deeper layers which are much hotter. In the order I have thought of them, these are techniques for warming the solar surface- locally or around the entire surface. [1] Lasers - possibly utilizing hydrogen from the sun itself for fusion power. [2] Reflectors or mirrors to aim the sun's own heat back at the surface. [3} A greenhouse gas - if one can be maintained stably in the lower corona, this would be the ultimate mirror or reflector. Extremely high million-degree C. temperatures occur in portions of the lower corona, and the forces that cause them are not completely known- very likely magnetism is involved. This strategy would take mass relatively uniformly from all areas of the surface. It would be desirable to remove mass from the polar regions of the sun, so that it would travel away from the orbit of the earth and other planets. [4] Disruption of the cooler chromosphere to expose hotter interior gas or plasma. [5] ANTI-MATTER- would be extremely effective annihiliating some of the sun's mass and generating astonishing heat if ANTIMATTER can be found, manufactured and handled and contained, as by very strong magnetic fields. There might be advantages in concentrating ther ANTIMATTER at very low temperatures near absolute zero possibly utilizing superconductivity to assist handling, which is far in the future .[6] collect energy from hot distant sources such as black holes, neutron stars,supernovas, giant stars and beam it to solar system[7] find nearby BROWN dwarfs believed to exist within a few light years of earth and utilize their hydrogen or intragalactic clouds for FUSION. [8] Utilize Oort Cloud comets gravitationally bound to solar system as hydrogren source. [9] Design heat-resistant space ships that can withstand tmperatures above 3000 degrees C. These might use refractory materials such as tantalum carbide which melts above 3800 C - various forms of carbon perhaps fullerene or nanotube - tungsten, thorium oxide. Albert Brown of Joyce suggests solar heat might be turned to electricity, at the same time cooling outer surface and powering space craft and lasers. He also suggests comet ice might contribute - a space ship could even operate for a time placed inside comet ice. The sun is presently about seventy-one per cent hydrogen, twenty-seven per cent helium, and two per cent heavier elements. The removal of helium probably would favor stability, but the helium tends to be concentrated near the core, as David Latham pointed out in 1995. Recently Sean Root of Port Angeles heard a broadcast on a TV history channel in which something was said about "helium bubbles" observed in sunspots. If this is true and if they can be targeted, a substantial amount of helium over a long time can be removed from the convective outer zone of the sun,which constitutes thirty per cent of solar radius and sixty-five per cent of volume. Doug Wadsworth of Port Angeles and Western Washington University at Bellinghan points out that if it is possible to reduce solar mass significantly, orbits of planets will be affected by reduced gravitational pull, and planets will move further from the sun. This will help delay or prevent over-heating the earth and may be of great long run importance. Effects on earth and future colonies on satellites of outer planets need careful calculation. It appears likely a time will come when much of the world's population will move to satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Mars is very small. Colonies can be sent to distant space, but moving all persons and animals and plants is much more difficult, but relevant to democratic planning and popular will. Someday it will be possible, but it is important to gain time by keeping earth habitable as long as possible. Huge amounts of energy will be required either for survival on earth, where overheating of sun will become a problem- or on the outer planets, where fusion energy will eventually be the main fuel- how much hydrogen would be needed for 2-3 billion year survival on outer planets? It comes to mind that the outer planets are mostly hydrogen - it is sugggested their cores may be largely metallic hydrogen, which conducts electricity under pressure. A recent issue of Astronomy magazine suggests that brown drawfs are likely to turn up within a few light years' distance from the earth. They might be excellent fuel sources, whether for my project of reducing mass of sun, or for heating life on the rocky outer satellites. I still hope the best source of energy will be the sun itself. If advanced civilizations already exist in Milky Way galaxy, might we detect them diverting pulsar beams to places where they need energy? I see much progress on non-baryonic matter and other topics. I found article on June 1999 observation of sun's galactic rotation relative to galactic center - but I am still looking for more on its motion relative to neighboring stars and galactic plane.


 

86.
Sam Bertha Jason Thalia Pollack Overbrook Penna p 11-86

 

BLACK NOTEBOOK FOUR p 184 Stae House information Sep 21, 1970 Michael Barrett Sep 20, 1850 Parents from ireland Robert laborer, + Catherine. Mary Barrett March 31, 1852. Residence Athens St. father laborer p. rob + Cath John J. Buckley Dec. 27, 1853?? p. Daniel + Mary.. Richard B. Sullivan Oc 13, 1881, 561 E. Sixth St. f constable Barry Sullivan. moth Mary T. both p. born boston. Daniel Buckley 1852? p. Daniel + Mary Born at 5 Wharf Street. John J.buckley 55 years in Melrose address 331 Grove died Sept 2, 1935 Widow Jennie Noon [Cain?] bur. St. Pat Stoneham. Informant Mrs. Buckley. last worked 1930 pattern maker. B=+m Railroad. Margaret Mary Donovan Hartigan July 21, 1932 in boston. Calvary. Eighty years five months 19 days. Born Feb. 2, 1852. p Jeremiah Donovan, Margaret Farrell. all thre b Ire Hannah E. Alberts Mehegan Dec May 11, 1940 in Bost. age 81 years 10 months 19 days. 33 Blakeville Street. f. Albert Alberts Germany. m. Annette Sommer Holland. Cartherine Mehegan Craig Aug 22 1923 age 69 years. 30 Blossom St was in Mass GH Holyhood Cem Brookline. Robert Barrett Dec 18, 1859 age 45 (born 1814?) d Bos inflammation of lungs. b. Ire. p 185 Jan 26, 1859 Robert Barrett born Boston son of robert + Catherine age two months. died inlflammation of lnungs. Mrs. Catherine Daly Barrett age 36. D February 20, 1863 b Ire d Bos parents ???Rob + Cath?? C B Meh July 21, 1863 cholera morbus Charles W.Nov 12, 1910. letter carrier 847 E fifth St. age 52 at d pneumonia after ten days Rob J. Meg May 14, 1925 age 67 years eleven months 27 days. an May 18, 1857. Old Calv 9 Brown Avenue 186 lib i S 21 70 James H. craig 3 Fruit St 1893 thru 1904 1887 James H. craig express 20 Auburn John R. Barrett 640 e seventh 1875, 6,7,8, 1881,2. 1885 214 D. St. 1886 + 1887 114 P Street 1888 39 Thomas Park. 1889 654 East Sixth street.This address appears on Catherine A. Buckley's death certificate. 1877 Adrew J. Daly 127 Lincoln House. 198 south. Daniel W. likewise. 1878 Daly brothers A.J. + DW. Daly cigars etc. 125 + 127 lincoln h. 139 W seventh. 1887 Andrew J. daly cigars 138 Kneeland boards 30 Adams. Roxbury. 1888 Andrew J. daly boards 30 Adams Roxbury. Dniel cigars 139 w Seventh Daniel W. 139 W. Seventh John 139 W Seventh. 1889 Andrew J. salesman 138 W. Seventh daniel 139 W Seventh Daniel w. 139 W. Seventh James 122 W. Sixth. James 212 W. sixth. Jerome 119 W. Third. 1891 A.J. Daly 134 W. Broadway salesman 1893 A.J. Daly 344 W.Broadway clerk at 144 W. Broadway. 1896 AJ D 175 W third. 1886 Andrew J. Daley clerk 691 E Second. Andrew J Daly cigars 138 Kneeland b 139 W Seventh 1886 A.j. Daly teamster 141 W. seventh. 1899 Andrew J. Daly 131 W. Third St. salesman. 1903 Andrew J. Daly salesman 404 Atlantic Ave h. 153 W. Broadway. 1907 Andrew J. Daly 131 I st salesman 19?? Emerson St. 1924, 1931 Andrew J. Daly bookkeepter 97 H. 1872 Jeremiah Donovan laborer 191 W. Third. 1861 Jer D Dcorner Second. -187- 176 Jer D trader 191 w Third. 1877 1878 no entry.


 

87.
Pollacks p 11-87

 

Photo #87 Attention Jason Pollack, Teddy Klein and cousins - one of Sam's sisters is iin this photo in Cynwyd. do you recognize which sister this is around 1939? website page Eleven - - Nbk 8 p97 --7 Lindberg Avenue Maynard Mass. June 19, 1973 Dear John, I am sorry that I did not get around to answering your letter sooner; but at the time it arrived in 1971 I was very much involved with writing a history of Maynard and also Treasurer of the Maynard Centennial Committee. Both of these affairs took just about all of the time that was available. = I recently uncovered your letter and decided that I would get on the ball and give you what little information I could gather from my foggy memory. My mother could rattle off the names of all her relatives, but as that was during her younger years naturally I did not pay too close attention. You can bet that when I was working on the history of the town of Maynard that she would have been very helpful as would have been most of my older brothers. Unfortunately we did not have tape recorders in those days. = No doubt if you can get out to see Margaret Coughlin at West Concord she can furnish some of the details you are looking for. = With my brother Frank passing away last month - that now leaves me the last of the Sheridans of this generation. Frank was postmaster at Maynard since 1935 to 1963. He was in the Legislature during the terms of Governor Ely and Governor Curley. For many years prior to going into the Legislature he was the leader of his own orchestra. I retired in 1963 after thirty-three years in the Department of Correction, most of which time was at Concord. I retired as Deputy Superintendant. So glad to be out of the business now. I have one daughter and five grandchildren. Margaret Coughlin was postmaster at West Concord from 1935 to 1962. Hope you can use what little information I have provided. Best of luck with your project. Sincerely, Ralph L. Sheridan. I am a direct descendant of Mrs. Margaret Coughlin being the second youngest of James and Katherine (Kate Coughlin) Sheridan. I am now the only remaining child, as my brother Frank passed away on May 23, 1973. He would have been eighty years old on July 21st. = My grandmother, Margaret Coughlin, was living with us in Maynard at the time of her death in 1908. My grandfather, John Coughlin, died in 1902. My memory of him is rather small because I saw him but a few times, and while my grandmother spent her last few months at our house in Maynard, my recollection of her is limited as she was bedridden during that time, so we young children did not see much of her. =My mother had a sister Margaret who married John Fitzpatrick of Concord,- a brother John, who married Mary Waldron of Concord,a brother William who married Annie Whelan of Worcester, and a sister Abbie unmarried. = My recollection of the Mehegans is quite limited. I have heard my mother speak of living when small with the Mehegans and attending the Gate of Heaven Church. I can vaguely recall Robert, the printer, and Charles, both of whom I believe were nephews of my grandmother, coming to our house to visit her near the end. Another instance I recall is that the wife of one of them, - I believe it was Charles- was quite a swimmer, and became exhausted while swimming off City Point and died as a result. I think they had three children, Charles, May, and Grace [two more born later Leonora 1901 and Eileen 1904]. Mary lived at our house for a few months after the mother died [late 1910]. Charles visited a few times, and I think Grace came out with someone to bring May home. This Charles visited quite regularly at William Coughlin's in Acton Center. William was my mother's brother. I saw him once about the time of World War but have lost track of him since.I do not recall seeing May or Grace again, but my sister Eleanor who died in 1963 corresponded regularly with one of them, who was known as Sister Mary Peter, St. Michael's Convent,Red Lion and Knights Road, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. My youungest brother Robert, who died in 1965, worked in Washington DC from 1935 to his retirement in 1965 -corresponded with her and visited with her in Philadelphia several years ago. = William Mehegan of West Concord was a regular vistor at our house. He married a Mary O'Neil of Acton. They had one daughter Nellie and one son Edward. Nellie had no children. Edward had one son. All are deceased. I do not know how William fits into the picture, except that he was a cousin of my mother. = I never heard the name of Ellen (Catherine?) Daley mentioned or any relatives by that name. = As for my immediate family James Sheridan senior died in 1937 aged 85. Katherine Coughlin Sheridan died in 1940 age 81. Edward - 1952 -77. James jr. 1952 - 72. John 1960- 82. Joseph 1958 - 76. Thomas 1885 six months. Eleanor 1963-75. Alfred 1894 - four years. Frank 1973 -79. Harold 1962 - 66. Ralph will be 75 on August 6 of this year (1973). Robert 1965 - 65. = John Fitzpatrick and Margaret [Coughlin] had four children -two now living- John Coughlin and Mary had six children - four now living. William Coughlin and Annie had six children - five now living. Abbie Coughlin of course was unmarried. Margaret Coughlin of West Concord and her brother William of Littleton might be able to provide some of the information you seek. They are both older than I, and having lived close to the old homestead, which is still standing, at Acton Center for many years would see more of the visiting relatives. - Ralph Sheridan."


 

88.
Esther Meranski born Novmber l9, l894 eldest sister of Sophie Ruth Meranski Barrett p11-84

 

photo visiting Sophie and Jack Barrett excursion to Nantrasket beach l933. Esther learned book keeping and stenography at a commercial school in Hartford,worked at H. L. Handy company and Swift and Company She bought family piano and telephone and helped finance eduation for Sophie at Mount Holyoke and youngest brother Pete at Trinity College l925 and University of Maryland medical school l929. She dated Charles Bardous many years although he father David Meranski would not allow a Gentile to come to their home. Her friends included Charles Rosenblatt, Julius and Mollie Aronson. She and Sophie were fond of Maple Walnut candies.She survived an abdominal cancer operation in l938, and her nephew Dr. David Geetter removed a large benign brain tumor about l974, which was causing Parkinson-'s- like tremor symptoms.On returning east from Hawaii and western trip August l947, Sophie stopped first to see Esther at Swift and company, then went to see Babe Geetter and family at their new home 92 Fern St. - possibly needed directions. Esther lived f in l930's with her brother Abe and his wife Ethyl on Hawkins St. Hartford. She attended the weddings of David and Joan Geetter Brooklyn l958 and Thalia Geetter and Michael Price Hartford June 10,l961 and the fiftieth wedding anniversary of her sister Bertha and Sam Pollacks Hallandale Florida June 24,l974. She was very happy in Hartford Jewish Home Tower Avenue until she passed away from metastatic breast cancer aged 86 years ten months. Oct l981. When Esther was working she often bought treats for the younger children, including candy. She and Sophie were especially fond of maple-walnut flavored chocolates.


 

 

[Main