Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos


Classic Library,Roxbury Latin School w. Dr. Van Courtlandt Elliott p 35-908
from l953 Roxbury Latin Year Book - senior Greek class of five- left to right Gordon Martin , Peter Banks, James Sullivan, Dr. Elliott, Clifford Ronan, John Barrett. John Barrett won George Emerson Lowell Greek and Latin scholarship at Harvard. Clifford Ronan won Amherst Greek scholarship as did William Crook in l951, Ross Holloway l952, John Sweeny l954,Jim Rooney in l956 and many other students of Dr. Elliott, whose wife Kathleen taught Latin at Radcliffe college and became a dean there.#908 p 35 -Greek and Latin teaching materials parts I & 3 begun Oct. 1998 revised : Latin and clasic Greek teaching materials Some friends here in Port Angeles may be learning some Latin and classic Greek with me.Some materials are available in libraries, but I probably will develop some of my own materials to use. Here is a beginning: Anyone who would like to help me with this project - perhaps something marketable will develop; Latin verbs have indicative,subjunctive, and imperative moods- Greek also has an optative mood used in conditional clauses.Latin verbs are conjugated with active and passive forms- Greek also has a middle voice, whose meaning is often idiomatic or reflexive. Latin verbs have six tenses,present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.Greek also has an aorist tense- some verbs have first and second aorist forms with shades of usage and meaning. Both Greek and Latin nouns and prounouns are declined with nominative, genetive, dative and accusative cases, and Latin has several additional cases - the ablative is used for agency with the preposition a- or ab and without a perposition for the very common ablative of means and in various other uses such as place whence. Latin also has vocative and locative cases. Greek and Latin descend from an IndoEuropean group of languages. Latin equus and Greek hippos both mean "horse", but the stem consonant becomes "pi" in Greek and "q" in Latin. The Latin alphabet is close to English but does not use k,w, j, y, z except in foreign words. The name Julius was originally Iulius - with a vowel sound. In classical Latin the letter "v" is pronouned "w" though Lawyers "anglicize" pronunciation,as in "inter vivos" gift. Catholic church Latin especially in music gives "c" a "ch" sound. The Greek alphabet has twenty-four letters whose names are alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, eta, theta, iota, KAPPA, LAMBDA, mu, nu, xi,omicron (short o), pi, rho, sigma, tau, upsilon, phi, khi, psi, omega(long o). The sound "h" is obtained by a symbol called the aspirate,which looks like a backwards comma written above the first vowel or diphthong of a word. The head of the aspirate sign is at the upper left.Other vowels are smooth, with a mark in the reverse direction,the head of the "comma" to the right above the vowels.Since word processors do not have Greek symbols, I am using these signs for the Greek letters in alphabetical order: ABGDEZH(eta, long 'e'sound)#(theta), IKLMNXOPRSTUF(phi)C(khi)ps(psi)W(long O,omega).I use * for the aspirate symbol ( the h sound) and ' for the smooth-breating silent symbol over initial vowels of Greek words.Adjectives have masculine, feminine, and neuter forms, agreeing with substantive words they modify.Latin verbs have four principal parts - the first person singular present active form,the present active infinitive,the first person singular perfect active form,and for transitive verbs the compound tense of the perfect passive, with the perfect passive participle (masculine singular form) and the first person singular form of the auxiliary verb to be (sum- I am). The Latin verb to be is "sum, esse, fui, futurus" an intransitive verb, where the future active participle "futurus"replaces the non-existent perfect passive participle as the fourth "principal part" of the verb. Most Latin verbs form their "principal parts" by regular rules in four conjugations. There is a stem verb in each conjugation A in the first conjugation as the verb "to carry" - porto, portare, portavi, portatus sum - E in the second conjugation as in the verb "to teach "doceo, docere, docui, doctus" or "habeo, habere" "to have".-either e or i in the large third conjugation as cedo, cedere "move, retreat, yield' with irregular perfect tense cessi- and i-stems like capio - "to take." The small fourth conjugation has I as the stem verb like "venio,venire, veni, venturus", "to come" - intransitive, where the future active participle becomes the fourth principal part. Three perfect active forms worth learning occur in Julius Caesar's famous account of his campaign in Gaul, "Veni, vidi, vici" - "I came, I saw, I conquered." Greek is a very ancient language -Homer and other early writers show traces of several different dialects, including Ionian, Achaeian, Dorian and others. In the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ the Athenian dialect became standard through writers like Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle, and was spread over a wide empire by Alexander around 335 B.C. This led to a dialect called the "koine" or common for centuries over wide areas including Alexandria,where the Old Testament was translated into the Septuagint, and influenced the Greek of the New Testament, which particularly interests several persons who will be working with me. The Gospel of Mark shows signs that its source was in the Semitic dialect Aramaic-Matthew and Luke learned Greek as adults, whereas the Apostles Paul and John had longer exposure to Greek language and literature.Latin also went though many periods, but the golden age was around 60 BC-14 AD, the epoch of Cicero, Julius Caesar and his nephew Augustus. Virgil,Horace, Tacticus, Seneca,Pliny come a little later, but in the first century AD. Plutarch, Jerome, Augustine are important later writers and the law code of emperor Justinian.Plutarch early second century AD actually wrote his parallel lives of distinguished Greeks and Romans in Greek, but it had great influence in later Roman empire and mediaeval and early modern times - Shakespeare's plays "Julius Caesar" "Antony and Cleopatra" and "Coriolanus' follow Plutarch biographies closely - see multi volume "Shakespeare's Sources" edited by Geoffrey Bullough.Latin nouns are in five declensions - first declension words are usually feminine as "girl" Nominative-puella, Genitive puellae,Dative puellae, Accusative puellam,Ablative -puella (with long -a- sound on final letter-, plural -N-puellae, -G-puellarum, -D-puellis -Acc-puellas,-Ab- puellis.Some foreign masculine words are declined by first declination rules -ncluding two words from Greek - "nauta"_ sailor and "agricola" farmer. Second declension words may be masculine or neuter; neuter words have the nominative and accusative cases endings the same:"Horse" is masculine equus, equi, equo, equum,,equo & plural equi, equorum, equis, equos, equis. Town is neuter: oppidum, oppidi, oppido, oppidum, oppido and plural oppida, oppidorum, oppidis,oppida, oppidis(sequence is always nominative, gentive, dative, accusative ablative.The third declension often shows variation in the nomiative singular-without considering all examples, one third declension noun is the feminine urbs, urbis,urbi (long i) urbem, urbe- prural urbes, urbum, urbibus, urbes, urbibus - actually I had better check this one.It may be irregular. One example of a phrase is the pope's Christmas message "urbi et orbi" - to the city and to the world (dative caSE). ROME WASN'T BUILT IN A DAY - I shall try these materials out with students here and welcome corrections and ideas via E mail correspondents. Some legal Latin -habeas corpus - (subjunctive - "you should have the body (here)"(produce prisoner in court) "Res ipsa loquitur" the thing speaks for itself - loquor is a deponent verb - passive form with active meaning- "Sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas'-So use you own (property) that you do not damage another's (property). Trespass "vi et armis" literally "by force and arms" a figure of speech called "hendiadys' (Greek one through two) usually TRANSLATED "BY FORCE OF ARMS"- OR TRESPASS "quare clausum fregit" by what justification he (one) broke into an enclosed property. A famous mediaeval statute on land law and equity is entitled "Quia emptores""Because purchasers (are defrauded;).." "Festina lente" - make haste slowly- more to come Part 3 below - bonus -a -um good melior melius better optimus -a -um best adverb bene well Adeste fideles laete triumphantes Venite venite in Bethlehem Natum videte regem angelorum Venite adoremus (hortatory subjunctive "let us adore" dominum Pater noster qui es in caelis Adveniat regum tumm Fiat voluntas tuum in terra sicut in caelis. Dona nobis hodie panum cotidianum. Typical Homeric epithet: Rhododactylos 'Eos -"rosy-fingered Dawn" Kal'*EMERA good day KAL *ESPERA good evening Kuwn dog(source of word cynic) Important irregular verb to carry fero oiso HNEGKA 'ENHNOCA enHGMAI 'eNHG#HN Greek - related to Latin ferro, ferre, tuli, latus. Latin Verbum sapienti satis est A word to the wise is sufficient Latin volo velle, volui - to wish negative nolo -do not wish as in legal plea "nolo contendere." Possum posse compond of "sum" to be able facio make porto carry amo love capio take sustuli undertake paene almost - root of "peninsula" Adverbs often end in "iter" - Fortiter in modo, suaviter in rem" Gerund is verbal noun with accusative and ablative case as mirabile dictu - wondrous to tell.Gerundive is FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLE often with implication of purpose, as in Aeneid the Trojans go to Italy "ad urbem constituendam" - not only to Rome accusative of place whither but "for the purpose of founding the city (Rome)" literally to the city, "to-be-founded". ND is the sign of the gerund and gerundive, added to the fourth principal part of Latin verbs. Cato"Cartago est delenda"- 'Carthage must be destroyed.'Indirect discourse is widely used by classic Latin authors, with the main verb of quoted material expressed by an infinitive, and subjunctives for the suordinate clauses.The rules of indirect discourse are very important for those who wish to master speaking or writing in good Latin for academic purposes.Scientific nomenclature of plants was developed from the Latin style of the encyclopedist Pliny in AD l753 by the Swedish taxonomist Linnaeus- the genus is Capitalized, and the species beins with a small letter in the binomial nomenclature begun by Linnaeus.
Subject: classical library & Dr. V.C. Elliott