Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos


John with his mother at home in Hawaii, 1942.#33 p 5 {H} {S}


Front lawn, 2415 Ala Wai Boulevard, Waikiki. Aa lava pillars are visible in open garage. + Gould Belt+Newly found objects in ... the Gould belt? By Robert Roy Britt, . 03.23.00 Gamma ray sources in the Gould belt as imaged by the Compton observatory. IMAGE: IMAGE: NASA/GSFC On a clear night under dark skies, you can look overhead and pick out a band of the brightest stars -- a cradle of star formation whose violent shock wave angles oddly through the main disk of the Milky Way and, at its fringes, brushes our solar system. You would then know just about as much as any astronomer does about the Gould belt. But unlike Neil Gehrels of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, you might not have been studying the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory's catalogue of gamma-ray emissions, exploring the question of whether the Gould belt had its own distinct set of objects emitting high-energy gamma rays. Wednesday, armed with results, Gehrels and his colleagues announced that there is in fact a distinct batch of gamma-ray emitters in the Gould belt, confirming an expectation that goes back more than a decade. The results will appear in the March 23 issue of the journal Nature. White dots represent massive stars in the Gould belt. Yellow dots are unidentified gamma-ray sources in the belt. IMAGE: NASA/GSFC Gehrels told that the objects -- which are probably massive stars, pulsars, giant clouds of gas or remnants of exploded stars -- are closer to our solar system and fainter than other sources of gamma rays. The objects are all less than about 1,000 light-years away. The entire Milky Way galaxy is more than 100,000 light-years across. "The Goddard group has shown in a rather convincing way that the current best catalogue of medium- to high-energy gamma-ray sources contains a significant number of objects that are very likely associated with massive stars and regions of star formation relatively close to us," said Josh Grindlay of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Grindlay, who was not involved in the study, said the findings will help explain how an area of massive star formation, made up of giant clouds of gas and stars 20 to 30 times the size of our sun, contributes to the overall gamma-ray emission in the galaxy. "There are other galaxies, called star-formation galaxies, where enormous bursts of star formation are going on," Grindlay said in a telephone interview. "The hope would be that one could apply these results from right close by to understand what an entire galaxy would look like when it's got whole bursts of these massive stars being formed." Intense energy Gamma-ray sources Pulsars are small spinning stars that send out radio waves, which sweep through the cosmos like a ballerina's skirt. Near the end of their stellar life cycles, pulsars have a mass similar to our sun, all squeezed into a ball just a few miles across. Black holes are thought to exist throughout the universe. One is believed to hide at the center of our galaxy, and there may be many small ones scattered through the Milky Way. Supernovas are stars that have spent their nuclear fuel. In a giant explosion, they fling their outer shells into space, creating a violent stellar wind that crashes in and through the surrounding gas and dust of space. High-energy radiation, in the form of gamma rays or X-rays, is thought to be produced by clouds of gas, black holes, neutron stars and pulsars, as well as the violent collisions created when supernovas cough up their shells into the interstellar medium. Gamma rays are mostly absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, so they typically need to be studied from space. Over the past decade, the Compton observatory has found roughly 170 points of gamma-ray emission, all nestled within the pancake-like disk that makes up the bulk of our Milky Way galaxy. The objects comprise what is known as the EGRET catalog. But scientists can't say for sure what any of these sources are. Also at issue has been whether the Gould belt might harbor similar objects. The Gould belt? The origin of the Gould belt, named after Benjamin A. Gould (who in the mid-1800s became the first American to obtain a Ph.D. in astronomy) is not known for sure. It may have been created when a massive cloud slammed into the galaxy more than 30 million years ago, or it could have been born by an internal explosion. Either way, it is now a stellar nursery. "Theorists speculate that it was caused by a cluster of massive stars that exploded as supernovae and produced a compression wave in the interstellar medium," Gehrels said. "This then stimulated star formation." By chance, Gehrels explained, the Gould belt is tilted by about 20 degrees with respect to the main disk of the galaxy. Again, we don't know why. Lively drama The findings are important because they show that there is more than one source of gamma-ray emissions in the galaxy, said Isabelle Grenier of the Université Paris. In an analysis of the findings, Grenier writes in Nature that the study, along with other information, provides "compelling evidence" that the Gould belt is an important birthplace of gamma-ray sources. "As possible relics of supernova explosions in the Gould belt," Grenier writes, "the gamma-ray sources highlight how dynamic the cycle of matter through star formation and death is in our neighborhood -- a lively drama that eludes us because of the stillness of the optical sky to our naked eyes. It will likely be five years or more before astronomers have better gamma-ray data to work with, when NASA's Gamma Ray Large-Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is scheduled to launch. ez


Jack Barrett photo at Harry Pardee lemon ranch Saticoy, Ventura county California #34 p 5 {S}


During this visit there was a severe water shortage, July l939, and the Pardees, wellto=do lemon ranchers took the Barretts out to eat for nearly all meals except breakfast. Sophie had serious problems washing John;s and her own clothes en route from San Diego to visit grandfather Barrett in Boston, before moving to 96l5 Shore Road, Brooklyn, for Jack's next assiognment at New York Branch Hydrographic office. California is uniquely rich agriculturally though short of water in the south; the Monterey pine from an extremely small coastal area has proved among the fastest growing of all conifers widely planted in New Zealand and other mild climates. Endemic Calocedurs decurrens California incense cedar is replacing Virginia juniper for pencils. Sugar, ponderosa,jeffrey, bristlecone,and pinyon pines, many species of cypresses, palms, Brewer's weeping spruce, firs, cacti, Mentzelia,poppies,tanoak,immigrant citrus contribute to California's botanic green gold and biodiversity. See Flora-ecology text by Thomas Barbour and Jack Major.Native oaks and grasses need protection under pressure of population and farming.,California has been rich in plant scientists notably geneticist and grass researcher Ledyard Stebbins and horticulturists including Luther Burbank and Burpee.


John Robert Barrett in front parlor 640 East Seventh Street, South Boston, #35 p 5 {P}


Born November 29, l854 on Goddard Street, then in Dorchester (which became West Eighth Street, South Boston as part of the l855 annexation of Washington Village, John Robert Barrett was about eighty-four years old when photographed here in his front parlor. His father Robert and mother Catherine Daly died of lung disease (probably tuberculosis) in December l859 and Februrary l863. His father was a milkman born in county Cork Ireland about l8l5, possibly at Leighmoney near the Bandon River adjoining Kinsale, Ballinhassig and Ballymartle. Records disagree whether his mother was born in Ireland or Massachusetts. John Robert Barrett at age eight went to live with an unrelated baker named Michael Thompson at 640 East Seventh Street, one of the oldest houses in the thinly settled CityPoint section. He is listed at this address in the l870 United States Census. He visited a brother Michael Barrett who was a butcher somewehre in the Middle West. John Robert returned to Boston and paid Boton poll tax in l875, the year he turned 21, and in l876 and l877. He was apprenticed to master plumber William S. Locke, a member of Boston Charitable Mechanics. John Robert Barrett had his own plumbing shop after l890, with locations on Federal Street and Atlantic Avenue and later 112 Harrison Avenue and Hudson and Tyler Streets, retiring l926. He had little schooling, but wrote letters never capitalizing "i". His plumbing ship account record book for l890-92 lists customers and all financial transactions ioncluding small Christmas presents for Buckley nieces and nephews in Melrose and l892 purchases of two copies of memoirs of Civil War General and l883 Massachusetts governor Benjamin Butler, who was l884 Populist party Presidential candidate. John Robert Barrett married Catherine Agnes Buckley on April 29, l884 in South Boston and made a second marriage October l894 to Mary Lane of Melrose. He lived to August 21, l942. Jack Barrett visited him June l941 before leaving for six years duty in Hawaii l941-l947 after emergency cancelled retirements.


John with his mother in Kapiolani Park, Waikiki September l941 p5 #36 {S} {H}


Kapiolani Park with its bandstand and zoo were near the eastern end of Waikiki Beach about six blocks east of the Barrett home at 2415 Ala Wai Boulevard ACROSS KAPAHULU Street from Thomas Jefferson School. Sophie enjoyed Sunday band concerts here, but John who had some ear infections sometimes found the music painfully loud. The zoo had many friendly goats, who liked to be fed, a remarkable big African crowned crane, with yellow crown feather and pink and white face, birds of paradise, toucans, a cassowary, peacocks, a monkey, a guinea hen, a rhea, and a penguin. It also had a large open cage where a large population of whitish pigeons were free to come and go. One came to the Barrett garage at 2415 Ala Wai Boulevard and became a pet for some months in l942 after being fed oatmeal cookies. Jack took a picture of it on the window, it liked the sound of a human voice reading. One time it disappeared for about ten days and returned, a fact which Fleet Chaplain William B. Maguire recorded with some fictional embellishments about the pigeon being drafted as an Army messenger in his l943 memoir, "The Captain Wears a Cross." The pigeon (named Quove in an effort at onomatopoeia to rending its cooing) was similar to the ones in the photo - in contrast to gray ones predominant in many American cities. Father Maguire was a hero December 7, l941 under fire - attending wounded and dying and helping many officers and sailors get to duty stations. He advised Jack Barrett the Pearl Harbor Overseas Transportation Officer on hardship cases of sailors and families who needed transportation priority during the acute shipping shortage before the Battle of Midway June 4-5, l942. Chapter Nine of "The Captain Wears a Cross" is entitled "Bread on the Waters," - Father Maguire heplped Sophie Barrett find a boarding house in l93l in Chefoo, China when Asiatic Fleet Exercises made conditions very crowded - so Jack Barrett though "just doing his job" was particularly glad to assist Chaplain Maguire in reciprocation of past kindness. Father Maguire went to considerable trouble officialy to deny a popular legend that he shot at Japanese aircraft during the December 7, l941 attack. Several journalists gave the story wide publicity, and Time Magazine printed the report in March l942 (without naming the chaplain) and reprinted the story in the March l998 seventh-fifth anniversary edition of Time. the story inspried the l942 Broadway hit song "Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition, and we'll all be free" - but the story is a legend, and Fleet Chaplain Captain William B. Magure USN was scrupulous in upholding the internationally recognized noncombatant status of chaplains. Other common birds in Waikiki were doves and mynah birds.


Sam, Bertha, Jason, and Thalia Pollack.p 5 #37


Overbrook Pennsylvnia, probably l939 Thanksgiving, possibly l937-8.++ Wednesday 14 May 1997Hipparcos confirms violent chain-reactions of star formationIn the constellations of Cygnus and Canis Majoris, astronomers see concentrations of newly-formed massive stars, created by the compression of the clouds of gas and dust from which stars are born. Details from ESA's star-fixing satellite Hipparcos, on the motions in the star associations, enable astronomers to judge the nature of the violent events in nearby regions of space which triggered the episodes of star formation. Fernando Comerón of the European Southern Observatory (Garching, Germany) told the Hipparcos Symposium in Venice today (14 May) that the Cygnus starmaking was probably provoked by strong winds and explosions among previous generations of young hot stars, encouraging the formation of new generations. On the other hand, a smaller association in Canis Majoris seems to be due to the shock of a stellar explosion, a supernova, spreading through a single cloud of gas and dust and inducing starbirths. Comerón was reporting on a study by a team of astronomers in Barcelona, Paris and Garching. The richest grouping of young stars known in the Milky Way Galaxy consists of the 400 members of the Cygnus OB2 Association, about 4000 light-years away. It is near the centre of the Cygnus Superbubble, a giant shell of very hot gas detected by X-ray astronomers. At least four other associations of young stars populate the region. The picture emerges of a shell of star formation spreading outwards from the central OB2 region for the past 5 to 10 million years. The stars too continue to travel outwards, after their formation, at speeds of up to 25 kilometres per second. "We have to explain these high velocities," Comerón commented. "They represent a lot of kinetic energy. Thanks to Hipparcos we now can say with some confidence that the energy required, for the expansion of the shell in Cygnus, is compatible with the combined power to be expected from hot stellar winds and occasional supernova explosions. But some of the young stars of Cygnus may be products of the most violent chain-reaction in the contemporary Milky Way." The Canis Major OB1 Association is smaller in scale, and the newborn stars flee from their birthplaces at a slower speed than in the Cygnus complex. The association is also lopsided, with a disturbance travelling outwards through a hemisphere, rather than a sphere as in Cygnus. Comerón and his colleagues therefore visualize a single supernova detonating at the edge of a dense cloud of gas and dust, about 3 light-years wide and with a mass about 1000 times the mass of the Sun. Has the Sun wandered into the midst of a similar scene of star formation, but nearer and older? The ring of bright blue stars around the sky called Gould's Belt consists of hot young stars within 2000 light-years of the Sun and Earth. Members of Gould's Belt include blue stars in the constellation Orion and in the Scorpius-Centaurus region of the southern sky. According to the 19th-Century American astronomer Benjamin Gould, who gave his name to the belt, bright northern stars within (for example) Cygnus and Perseus are members of the same system. It slopes at about 20 degrees to the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy.Per Olof Lindblad of Stockholm Observatory, Sweden, has made a lifelong study of Gould's Belt. Commenting on Hipparcos results on the Gould's Belt stars, as examined by a Swedish-Czech team, he confesses himself to be a little disconcerted. "Gould's Belt was easier to describe, and to believe in, before we had the precise data from Hipparcos on the candidate stars," Lindblad says. "Now we are not even sure whether Benjamin Gould's northern stars are really part of the same system. As for the Orion and Scorpius-Centaurus associations, the primary members of Gould's Belt, they seem to be revolving around each other. This motion helps to explain why the belt is flat and how it has retained its inclination. We see a large system of hot, young stars, about 30 million years old, but we are still not sure how big it is, or how many of the bright stars are members. It is clearly associated with a huge expanding cloud of neutral hydrogen gas." 'The oldest stars At the other end of the range of star ages, the first shots were exchanged in what promises to be a major battle among astronomers about the results from Hipparcos and their effects on estimates of the age of the oldest stars in the Universe. As mentioned in previous ESA Information Notes, several groups have already used Hipparcos data to arrive at relatively young age of 11-12 billion years. This is compatible with certain measurements of the motions of galaxies that indicate that the Universe too is relatively young. But in Venice today (14 May) Roger Cayrel of Paris insisted on an age of 14 billion years for the oldest stars close enough to the Sun and Earth for Hipparcos to measure their distances directly. Watch this space for further discussion of stellar ages at the Hipparcos Symposium tomorrow (15 May). Hipparcos star of the day: Gamma-2 Velorum By fixing its distance at 850 light-years, Hipparcos firmly identifies the most massive star that exists in the relatively near vicinity of the Sun and Earth. Astronomers previously thought that Gamma-2 Velorum, in the southern constellation of Vela, was almost twice as far away, at 1500 light-years. At the Hipparcos Symposium in Venice, Wilhelm Seggewiss of the Bonn University Observatory reported the new evaluation of Gamma-2 Velorum on behalf of a world-wide group of astronomers in the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Belgium, Canada, Argentina and Indonesia. Gamma-2 Velorum is easily visible to the naked eye. It is a massive star of the Wolf-Rayet type, discovered in 1867 by French astronomers. Wolf-Rayet stars are distinguished by strong emissions spread widely in wavelength by the motion of gas clouds. These tell of a massive star shedding mass at a very high rate. The mass of Gamma-2 Velorum is now estimated to be 32 times the mass of the Sun, but as it is diminishing at a rate of 3 solar masses per million years, it may be a remnant of a much more massive star. The new distance to Gamma-2 Velorum puts it close to the centre of huge spherical cloud of gas and dust, called the Gum Nebula.This star has two ways of slimming. Some of its gas is dragged by gravity into its smaller companion, Gamma-1 Velorum, which orbits closely around it every 78 days. Gamma-2 Velorum is also blowing out a strong wind of gas at about 1500 kilometres per second. The results from Hipparcos enable astronomers to evaluate the massive Wolf-Rayet stars more surely than ever before, and to look for the shock of their activity in their surroundings in the Galaxy. Background summary of Hipparcos and the Venice symposiumBuilt for ESA by Europe's aerospace industry, and sent into orbit by an Ariane 4 launcher, the Hipparcos satellite scanned the sky for nearly four years, 1989-93, measuring angles between stars. Protracted calculations by multinational teams then produced the Hipparcos Catalogue giving the positions and motions of 118,000 stars with 100 times the precision of previous surveys. The accompanying Tycho Catalogue contains a million stars charted with lesser but still unprecedented accuracy. ESA will release the catalogues to the world's astronomers in June. Meanwhile astronomers who helped in the mission have had privileged access to the data. At the Hipparcos Symposium in Venice 13-16 May they give their early conclusions in 190 reports, in the form of talks or scientific posters. The results affect many branches of astronomy from asteroids to cosmology, but especially the theories of stellar physics and evolution, because Hipparcos provides, for the first time, accurate distances to many thousands of stars. Return to the Hipparcos Venice '97 home page Maintained by : ESA/SPD Webmaster


Sophie Barrett at cave near Chefoo early summer l931 p 5 #38 CHINAchapter {S} {9}


38 Jack used mainly a German Voightlander purchased San Francisco June l929 en route to Philippines and a Kodak Speed Graphic purchased for $250 in Honolulu 1944 with tripod, flash and yellow and infrared filters.speed thousandth-second"Willie Steele" Story told to Sophie by Jack Barrett When Jack was Gunnery Officer on ther USS TULSA in Tientsin in 1930, he enjoyed going to the Tientsin Club after work about five in the afternoon, before my arrival November 1930. The Club was for men only - a chance to relax and get acquainted with men of many nationalities with good conversation. At the Tientsin Club he met businessman Faison Jordon, Mr. Reymolds of Ford Motors, and "Willie" Steele, head of The Tientsin Pukow Railway line. According to Jack ,Willie was a tremendous Scotsman with a tremendous appetite for good food, good liquor, and good conversation. When Jack said to him, "Willie, are you a Highlander or a Lowlander?" Willie struck Jack hard on the back in friendly fashion and replied, "Ach, mon, that's all past and done!" Sophie Meranski Barrett at Tientsin County Club photo by Tientsin Police Chief Isemonger CHINAchapter TULSA CHAPTER INTRODUCTION BY JOHN BARRETT-- Sophie Barrett's chapter "Living in the Orient" begins with her arrival November 13, 1930. Jack Barrett had been in North China since May, 1930. He arrived on destroyer TRUXTUN, was detached about May 15, and spent six days leave at Marine Barracks, American Legation, Peking, where he discussed gunnery with his 1910 ITASCA Revenue Cutter School shipmate William Rupertus. Then Jack was Gunnery Officer,First Lieutenant, Senior Watch Officer and temporarily Executive Officer of the gunboat TULSA based at Tientsin. At first Walter Decker was Captain, succeeded by Commander Paul Rice. The Rice family became very close friends of the Barrett family over many years in China, Panama, Hawaii, and after the war, and they may be introduced by several letters. Paul Rice lived to age 95 1886-1981 and his wife Gertrude to age 102 + 1/2 born Juneau, Alaska, December 3, 1893 to July 25, 1996. Her father was a silver miner named Hammond, and her mother's father named Coleman was one of the first 1847 settlers of St. Paul, Oregon in the Willamette Valley. He had eleven children. Gertrude had three older sisters, one of whom married Navy Admiral Cross. The Hammond family came to the San Francisco Bay area 1906 or 1907 shortly after the great earthquake and fire. In 1917 Gertrude married Naval Academy 1909 graduate Paul Rice, and their daughter Nathalie, born June 1919 was eleven years old when Sophie arrived in Tientsin. Nathalie was trained in social work and said Sophie played a part in interesting her in the field. The friendship of the Rice family was extremely beneficial for Sophie as a young Navy wife in a strange land, and Paul Rice's encouragement helped Jack Barrett achieve promotion to Lieutenant Commander and another fifteen highly productive years in his Navy career. These letters will introduce Gertrude and Paul Rice: Mrs. Paul H. Rice (Gertrude) 523 South Hudson Avenue, Pasadena, California 91106 22 July l970 Dear Sophie, We would be glad to write to Bill Paca if you would send his address. You've never written if he is married. I thought he did marry many years ago. The things he wrote about Jack must have pleased you. It seems that somehow they should be woven into your book. I'm sure that Paul always looks to his command of the TULSA as one of his most happy commands. Strangely enough he had a command in every grade, beginning with Ensign. He had a great regard for the officers that served with him on "the TULSA," and there always seemed to be such a good relationship. I always thought the China duty the best thing the Navy had to offer, but of course we've never been in Europe. Nath has three children, two boys and a girl. Chris is 24, John is 20, and Erica 18. Nathalie is Mrs. J. V Hawley (Mrs. Vernon Hawley 333 Marion Avenue, Mill Valley California 94941." PAUL RICE letter On February l0,l970 a letter came from Paul Rice Captain USN who was with us on the TULSA in Tientsin l930-3l, visited Panama in l935 & lived in Waikiki l94l when the war struck until February l942."Dear John, As you surmise,Sexton was a classmate of mine, class of l909 at the Naval Academy. Captain Samuel Wilder King was a classmate- knew him very well.He relieved me of command of the USS SAMAR at Hankow,China in June,l9l5. We had no Chaplain on the TULSA. As I remember the anchorage at the entrance of the Hai Ho River was called Tangku. The TULSA used oil-not coal.I spent about three years on the Yangtze- had command of the SAMAR & navigated it to Ichang one thousand miles up the river.Navigation on the river was similar to that on the Mississippi,I suppose.During the summer floods good sized ships could navigate to Hankow.Of course Gertrude & I would be glad to try to identify pictures.Mrs. Rice says she & Nathalie met your uncle Bill in New York City in l942 (but did not meet your aunt Virginia)).Please give our regards to your mother.Sincerely, Paul H. Rice." Sophie added a note: "Jack & I sailed from Tangku to Japan on the Chowan Maru.Tangku is where the Japanese soldiers crossed their swords on my chest when I started to the wrong dock where a Japanese Army troop ship was next to the passenger ship dock." [[PHOTO LIST 1-6, 4-27, 5-38, 7-49,53, 8-62, 17-135,136 18-137,138,139, 29-863, 36-918, 37-924, 39-945, 46-1002,49-1024, 53-1067,1068, 64-1160, -1371, 90-1381,1382 After l993 thefts of desks, bureaus, furniture, books and papers in West Roxbury l993, photo web p. 18 #139 is the only remaining photo of an outstanding group taken by Mr. Isemonger spring l931 at Tientsin Country Club. He and his daughter Tina arrived at Tientsin just after the Barretts December 1930 from India, and he became chief of police in British concession of Tientsin, where Court Hotel was located.He was a frequent luncheon visitor to the Court Hotel, sometimes accompanied by his daughter Tina.He was frequently helpful to both Jack and Sophie. The loss of the Tientsin country Club photos was a great disappointment, and also a group of photos of Sophie taken at Yamamoto studios Tientsin. p 18 #] p 26-796 China- arrive Nov 1930- Liang, Rice,New Years,Fleet Maneuvers 1931-Paca letter-Mukden incident- GUNBOAT TULSA - CHINA "LIVING IN THE ORIENT" MAIN SOPHIE BARRETT TEXT NOVEMBER 1930 - ARRIVAL CHINGWANTAO + TIENTSIN + COURT HOTEL + GUNBOAT TULSA + RICE FAMILY Between Manila & Hong Kong on the transport HENDERSON we encountered a typhoon when the ship rocked & pitched dangerously & even I spent much time in my bunk-not because I was seasick but because it was not safe to be on deck.An Army wife,Florence Hilldring,came aboard in Manila for the trip to Chingwantao en route to Peking for a change of climate as she found Manila too hot & humid. Finally on the thirteenth of November l930 the ship arrived early in the morning at Chingwantao far in in northern China near the Manchurian border.Jack met the ship and had breakfast aboard. I was at the head of the gangway and watched him come aboard in Navy blue winter uniform.We smiled and waved to each other for about half an hour while the ship tied up.He brought a new dark gray heavy woolen steamer rug (English) to use on the train trip from Chingwantao to Tientsin one hundred twenty-five miles. Although Jack was very thin,he looked well & very happy to see me & was most complimentary about my small velvet hat & my coat trimmed with Persian lamb fur. We took first a train, then a motor car to the Court Hotel on Victoria Road in the British concession where we had lunch-called "tiffen" by the Australian woman Miss Moore who owned the small hotel.Then Jack dropped the bomb.He told me that Captain Paul Rice had held the TULSA over one day so Jack could meet me & get me settled.The next morning-early-the TULSA would sail for Shanghai for a priod of overhaul & liberty- & I would be left alone again-this time in the Orient where I knew no one.I left the hotel with him right after tiffen to go the mile to the ship.Two ricksha coolies came up,& Jack signalled me to get into one. Jack gave the Chinese command "Dong-y-dong" for them to proceed. At first I was reluctant to have human beings wait on me in this way, but it was a necessity for European women, and they were glad to have the money, at a time when most Chinese lived in extreme poverty.We arrived at the Court Hotel by taxi from the railroad station in time to have lunch "tiffen" there.Then we went by rickshaw down Victoria Road to the TULSA - about a five to ten minute walk- on the dock on the Hai Ho River.I met some of Jack's shipmates and looked over the many linen items Jack had bought in China.About four p.m. we went by rickshaw to call on Mrs. Faison Jordan, wife of an American business executive for a British company, who was friendly at the Tientsin Country Club. When she found out that I was a Mount Holyoke graduate,she told us about Mrs. Evans, leader of the Mount Holyoke Alumnae Club of North China, whose husband was a Tientsin lawyer. We made a short call on Mrs. Evans, who told me that my former student Grace Liang was living in Tientsin.Grace soon called on me at the Court Hotel and later entered my name in the Mount Holyoke Club of North China. The Liangs lived at 314 Elgin Avenue in the British Concession of Tientsin, where the Court Hotel was located also. About five o'clock we went to call at the home of our TULSA commander - Commander and Mrs. Paul Rice at 127 Meadows Road, also in the British Concession. The TULSA was leaving for Shanghai the next day and Captain Rice had held the ship at Tientsin an extra day or two so that Jack could await my arrival. "Captain" Rice was really a Navy Commander, class of 1909 at the Naval Academy. When Jack first reported to the TULSA in May 1930,Commander Walter Decker was the Captain, but by the time I arrived, November 13, 1930,Paul Rice was in command.This was his second tour of duty in China.In 1912 he had commanded the USS SAMAR, a Yangtze River Patrol Boat.which navigated one thousand miles up the river to the city of Ichang.Navigating on the Yangtze, according to Captain Rice,is like navigating on the Mississippi River.When he was detached from the SAMAR,it was then commanded by Samuel Wilder King in 1915.Captain Rice had been on the Yangtze about three years, and his good friend Samuel Wilder King, later in 1950s appointed governor of the Territory of Hawaii by President Dwight Eisenhower, was his 1909 classmate - the first native Hawaiian appointed to the United States Naval Academy. When Paul Rice first met his wife Gertrude (Hammond), he decided that she was the girl he would marry. I knew her well in China, Panama, and Hawaii. She was not only pretty,but a charming hostess, an excellent conversationalist, a devoted wife,mother, and friend.Many of my most vivid memories in Tientsin, Chefoo, Shanghai, and Waikiki revolve around her. We had many exciting experiences together in Wai-hai-Wei, China, and Hawaii. She occurs again and again in the pages of this narrative.She and Paul and their daughter Nathalie did much to help me meet what Jack called the "vicissitudes" of the Navy and to enjoy Navy life despite its many challenges. About six o'clock we went back to our hotel for dinner, and I unpacked.At nine the next morning Jack left for the TULSA, which sailed to Shanghai for repairs and leave and liberty for the crew. When the ricksha coolies finally dropped us at our hotel room early in the evening for our dinners, they were well paid by Jack. Jack spent a lot of time warning me to drink only boiled water & to eat no fresh fruit or vegetables-I would get Chinese stomach ache or even cholera.Also he told me never to touch shellfish as the water was so polluted.Before I knew it,early morning arrived,& Jack was off to the TULSA & to Shanghai.MRS. FAISON JORDAN'S DINNER PARTY + TIENTSIN CLUB Things picked up a bit when Mrs. Jordon called on me early the following week & invited me to a formal dinner party at her home on Saturday night followed by dancing at Tientsin Country Club. Mrs. Faison Jordan's dinner party was my initiation into the social whirl of Tientsin. For the first time I wore my new black velvet evening dress, a white rabbit's -fur jacket purchased in Shanghai on the way up and wore the crystal beads Miss Farmer, one of my workers at Macy's, had given me as a "bon voyage" present.At dinner I sat on Mr. Jordan's left. At my left was Nora Waln, well-known author whose writing frequently appeared in the Atlantic Monthly magazine.Her husband, an Englishman, was head of the Chinese Post Office in Tientsin.Although everyone else sympathized with me about going half way round the world to be with my husband and then being left alone for eight days when the TULSA went to sea the next day,Nora Waln said nothning to me either at dinner or later, though the others were friendly.Mr. Jordan drove me to the Tientsin Country Club where I enjoyed dancing, music, and sandwiches.Suddenly before midnight Nora Waln went home.The rest of the party left the club when it closed about two o'clock,and although I asked to be taken to my hotel, they took me to a different party in a commercial hotel, and I was not delivered to my own hotel until daybreak.Ms. Waln's husband was the one who took me to the Court Hotel and invited me to dinner at their home on Wednesday evening. I told him I could not accept an invitation that did not come from his wife. He answered, "Child, you are in North China now, where the men are the masters, and my wife being an American, owes you some hospitality. I will call for you here at the Hotel at seven on Wednesday." Early Sunday afternoon my room boy brought me a chit from him reading:"Dear Mrs. Barrett, My wife is indisposed, so the invitation for Wednesday is cancelled." I never heard from them again. MR. and MRS "BUNNY" WARREN + MR. HENINGSON at COURT HOTEL I soon met Mr. and Mrs. "Bunny" Warren, guests at the Court Hotel whose small table for two was close to my table in the dining room. Mr. Warren was employed by the British Imperial Chemical Company.They remained at the hotel for several months until they found a furnished house that suited them.After they left the Court Hotel I frequently at tea with "Mollie" Warren at their home. At the hotel too I met Mr and Mrs. Heningson of Denmark, who were still living at the hotel when we left China.Mr. Heningson, although "not a stamp collector", he said cut every stamp off the envelopes he received and put them in a small green cardboard box.He gave me a boxful of stamps, mostly Chinese and Danish.We later allowed aunt Mollie Barrett to look through those and give some to my nephew Billy, and Willie Kennedy at Macy's also looked through the box and took a few when she visited Boston in 1932.Willy was still working at Macy's in 1932 and gave me a copy of a report I had been working on when I resigned in 1930,-definitions of terms used to describe successful and unsuccessful sales clerks.She told me that she was in Boston at the request of Percy Strauss of Macy's [whom I knew] to go over the report with Mr. Kirstein of Filene's to get his impression of it.I was very pleased to find that the report was credited to me because so much of the work had been completed before I left for China.-43- GRACE LIANG MOUNT HOLYOKE 1925 + FAMILY Mrs. Evans had told my former Mount Holyoke (class of l925) student Grace Liang, that I was in Tientsin.Her father had graduated from Hartford Public High School Connecticut about l880, & then a change of government policy required him to return to China, where he had a distinguished career first in north China railroads & customs offices & then in the Foreign Service.I believe he was the first Chinese to be invited to address the United States Congress- around the time of the Nine Power Conference in l922 when Japanese commercial ambitions conflicted with America's Open Door policy on China enunciated Secretary of State John Hay in the McKinley administration & with the principle of self-determination pronounced by Woodrow Wilson. Grace came to call on me very soon after I arrived & invited Jack & me for tea at their home when the TULSA returned.Soon we called on Mrs. Liang ,who served us tea-we left when the servants brought our coats & hats & bowed us out-but she had given us the honor of inviting us to dinner- at which her distinguished husband,her daughter Grace,& her two doctor sons would be present.These young men had been educated in England,& their services were greatly in demand.The family occupied a spacious compound.Years later when the Communists occupied Tientsin,the family lost all its possessions and Tou.....Liang though a valued physician,was liquidated.At that dinner party Grace & her mother appeared in exquisite Chinese dresses,but the men wore European clothes.Since Mr. Liang expressed an interest in ships, Jack invited the family to dinner aboard the TULSA.That evening the dock was crowded with Chinese people,who had gotten the word that Mr. Liang was expected. They respectfully kept their distance & silence as he left his car & boarded the ship.They remained on the dock throughout the dinner to get another glimpse of the respected diplomatic official.He told us about the low standard of living of most Chinese laborers & how little it took to support a family in those days deep in the worldwide economic depression.Later in l93l Grace left Tientsin to marry Dan Yapp of Shanghai, and then we saw no more of her. In l970 we located them in Waikiki on Kalakaua Avenue.We understand that she has been teaching in Connecticut at the Central Connecticut State College, New Britain, Connecticut. CHIEF OF POLICE ISEMONGER and his DAUGHTER TINA, HAI HO RIVER PILOTS and WIVES, NEW YEAR'S EVE COSTUME PARTY 1930-31 Since I arrived in Tientsin on the thirteenth of November, 1930, the holiday season was fast approaching. A new guest registered at the Hotel just before Christmas. He was Mr. Isemonger, who was an Englishman just employed in India in charge of the Sikhs, in the police of India. He had come to Tientsin with his twenty-year-old daughter Tina to take charge of the Chinese and Sikhs police in the British concession of Tientsin where we lived. Jack informed me that it was part of his job to foster international relations, so we were friendly. The Isemongers lived at the Court Hotel for a while and later had lunch there frequently.When Mr. Isemonger found a nice house in Tientsin, Jack and I were frequent guests for Saturday noon dinner and for dancing later at the Country Club. The Court Hotel was the home of several Hai Ho River pilots mostly of English extraction. Mrs. Johnson, English and the wife of a pilot, invited me to go to Schlessinger's Tea House with her about eleven o'clock oone morning late in December. She invited us to attend a costumed New Year's Eve Ball at the Tientsin Country Club, of which we were members, saying she hoped we would understand that we would have to pay our share of the cost. My husband and I had matching costumes made of inexpensive blue and white Chinese silk- and we enjoyed the pilots who remained friendly throughout our stay. Mr. Isemonger and several of the pilots and their wives are with us in the New Year's Eve 1930-1931 photo on web page 39 photo #945. --Mr. Isemonger had an excellent camera and found me photogenic. He would come by the Court Hotel in the morning to invite me to ride to the Country Club with me where he was tireless and gifted in photography. He always gave me copies of the pictures without charge. He spent many hours in the Chinese city hunting for an embroidered evening coat for me- he found a white one with large white flowers.The bottom was embroidered with exquisite silk tiny blue and black flowers - also the front of the evening coat had the same border, modeled on styles of the Empress Dowager's family. In the fall of 1952 I wore it to my son's Junior prom in West Roxbury when I was the hostess, because he was Class president that year. We emjoyed Mr. Isemonger's hospitality for many months. Jack used his new Voightlander camera frequently to take pictures of me in our hotel room, and I took one of him, in which a red table-like paper drum is visible. Evenings he spend a lot of time studying to get ready for a promotion exam at the end of 1931. JANUARY 1931 - SOPHIE'S MANCHURIAN SEA OTTER FUR COAT --Not long after New Year's 1931 I was sitting in the small reception room in the Court Hotel after tiffen when two men sat down, talking.I was wearing my cloth coat with only Persian lamb trim- not warm enough for the north China climate with its peircing cold winds. When I realized that they were Americans, I asked them what they were doing in Tientsin, and they said they were taking a train later that afternoon for Manchuria, where they would buy furs. When I said I had never been as cold as I was on the streets of Tientsin, they offered to buy some skins for me, as they expected to be back in Tientsin in a few weeks. When they returned they had for me enough sea otter skins for a gorgeous coat.The cost was small - the coat warm and beautiful and very inexpensive. It was made up by a Chinese tailor in Tientsin. Sea otter is lustrous and light gray -a short,durable fur with a lovely silver sheen-very warm & comfortable.This coat appears in many photos of Sophie in China 1931 and in Bala Cynwyd 1937, and lasted extremely well. Sophie continued to use it during her years in West Roxbury after world War II. Sophie often commented that North China winters are very cold, and most of the north Chinese are taller than the Cantonese workers who have come to Hawaii, San Francisco, and other parts of the United states. The following September I saw these same fur buyers, when they brought word of the Japanese capture of Mukden, which news I telephoned to Captain Paul Rice - the first report to United States Navy and government.Although the Court Hotel was reputed to have the best food in North China. food was definitely a problem because we dared not touch milk, butter, fresh vegetables or Chinese grown fruits. My husband grew tired of the steady diet of rice and snipe but managed to wash it down with liquids. I lived on toast with marmelade,rice, snipe, pot roast, cooked dessets and tea. Captain and Mrs. Rice occupied a furnished house and most graciously invited us to dinner fortnightly. When we wanted to return their hospitality and to entertain the new Executive Officer and his wife, Lieutenant Commander and Mrs. Leonard Doughty, we invited them to the Court Hotel for dinner.One evening Rachel Claude Doughty, who came from Washington D.C. regaled us with tales of her mother's friend who came to the Claude home in Washington and stayed for forty years. Jack took photographs of a traditional Chinese funeral, in which great honor is paid to ancestors. White is the color of mourning. FEBRUARY 1931 Jack took leave, and we visited Peking and the Great Wall of China and the Ming Tombs and Forbidden City where the Emperors had lived and "Center of the Universe." .-- PURCHASES As time passed that winter and spring I became well known to the Chinese and Japanese shopkeepers on Taku and Victoria Roads. I bought some rare dragon and turtle candlesticks of brass,some 48- red and green Chinese lacquer drums, which served as small tables and through Mrs. Mendelsohn I located a lovely black and gold lacquer Chinese chest with inlaid colored semi-precious stones arranged in patterns. I also shopped for linens at Takahashi Japanese linen store. SPRING-SUMMER 1931 ASIATIC FLEET GUNNERY + MANEUVERS CHEFOO - SHANGHAI In the spring of l93l the gunboat TULSA went to Chefoo and Shanghai for Asiatic Fleet maneuvers & shooting excercises. The rest of the year she was kept near Tientsin primarily for intelligence purposes. Gertrude Rice, wife of our captain, (with her daughter Nathalie), & Rachel Doughty,wife of our executive officer & I decided to go to Chefoo & Weihaiwei on the Shantung peninsula while the TULSA was cruising south.Jack agreed I could go on a British freighter provided I take twenty-four bottles of boiled water-sold by the case in a drug store.Since the TULSA left before we did,Mr. Isemonger bought the case of water for me & drove me to the freighter,where the coolie stored the box near my bunk. Before we left Tientsin, we had lunch on the ship, and Mr. Isemonger joined me. There was a choice of hot beef stew or prawns. I was tempted to have the prawns for a change of diet, but Mr. Isemonger emphatically told the waiter, "The lady will have stew." I was disappointed at the time,but that night on the ship several of the ladies had severe intestinal trouble after eating the prawns. There was considerable cholera in the Orient, and Americans did not have their immune systems adapted to many strains of bacteria that Asians have adapted to. I shared a cabin with a British missionary lady returning from leave in England=she was on her way to a very hot dry region in Southwestern China.She was in the cabin when the case of water was stowed & subsequently had nothing to do with me-avoided me like the plague.When we arrived in Chefoo,I offered my case of water to the missionary woman,as I hadn't used any of it,&it was too heavy to take ashore.She was startled but very glad to have the water, which she thought all along was gin,as she understood that all American Navy women were heavy drinkers of strong liquor.The reason she avoided me was she thought I was planning to drink a case of liquor in her cabin. CHAPLAIN MAGUIRE FINDS A BOARDING HOUSE FOR SOPHIE Since the whole Asiatic fleet was in Chefoo for exercises,Jack had trouble finding a place for me to live.Finally the chaplain, Father William Maguire found room & board for me in a small boarding house owned by Mr.Wineglass. The goats lived right outside my room- there was no running water=a makeshift toilet & no bath. Before I left Tientsin, Jack had tried to warn me before and mentioned a famous Navy song, which we remembered and sang in later years-,"They wear clothespins on their noses in North China- They wear clothespins on their noses -(Be)cause Chefoo don't smell like roses - a verse of "O the monkeys have no tails in Zamboanga." GUNNERY OFFICER JACK BARRETT AND MARINE COMMANDER PACA ACHIEVE TOP GUNNERY SCORES The gunnery was successful beyond anything the ship had previously scored. Jack & Captain Rice were delighted. Jack's experience in gunnery went back to 1909 at Revenue Cutter School and included work with big guns on battleship WYOMING 1932. At Peking he discussed techniques and innovations with his former classmate Bill Rupertus, who was studying the latest Marine techniques. COLONEL WILLIAM WINCHESTER PACA LETTER 1970 Our friend Colonel William W. Paca,US Marine Corps (native of Annapolis Maryland,where he was named for great-great-great-grandfather who signed Declaration of Independence) wrote June 23,l970-he was the senior Marine officer on the TULSA & worked closely with Jack in winning the Asiatic Fleet l93l gunnery competition--"Colonel William W. Paca 680 American Drive, Apartment 42 Annapolis Maryland 21403 June 23, 1970 Dear Mrs. Barrett, I was distressed to learn via your letter of Jack's decease this past August. Please know that you have my sincere sympathy in your bereavement.= "I remember Jack fondly as a fine officer and one of the best of shipmates.I remember him too with gratitude-which I hope I expressed directly to him at the time-for his guidance & advice-which as gunnery officer of the TULSA,he gave me relative to the training of our Marine gun crew & which resulted in our gunners winning an "E" at that year's gunnery practice. = The cause of this inexcusable delay in replying to your so interestinhg letter has been twofold = First, I hoped to find among my effects, upon my return from several months stay in the South. several memorabilia relating to the TULSA. I did have a really excellent photograph of the ship, and I thought I also had a photograph of the officers and crew. I intended to send both to you for possible incorporation in Jack's memoirs, but I have been unable to locate either. The second cause is the embarassment I feel due to my deplorable memory, which worsens year by year, and which I am reluctant to confess. I have forgotten so very many names, dates, and other incidents of my military service. =-I do have one especially clear memory of Jack- and that is that he was one of a rare group of people who have the faculty of being 'where the action is.' Frequently during wardroom conversations on the TULSA when past events were mentioned,it would develop that Jack had either been there or nearby or otherwise had been in a position to have special knowledge of the event.In past years I have several times remarked that I once served with a naval officer who had that rare facility or gift.As for myself, I was graduated from West Point in August, 1917. I was promoted to Captain while in France.After the war and the letdown of demobilization I resigned from the Army. Three years later, and because I badly missed service life I joined the Marine Corps. This was basically because I loved the water and ships, and I had wanted to be in the Navy in the first place but had been unable to obtain a principal appointment to the Naval Academy. = I commanded Camp Catlin, Oahu, from 1944 to 1946. I was then on duty at Headquarters, Marine Corps, and later was Commanding Officer of the Marine Barracks, Naval Base, Philadelphia. = My great, great, great grandfather was William Paca, a Maryland signer of the Declaration of Independence. The main part of the hotel, Carvel Hall, was built on the rear of William Paca's town house. The hotel part has now been torn down, and the mansion and gardens are being restored by the local historical society. = There have been, and are, a rather surprising number of TULSA officers living here. These in addition to myself include Captain Doughty (deceased), Admiral William T. Fitzgerald, jr., Rear Admiral Wayne R. Loud, Rear Admiral Charles E. Coney, and Colonel Gordon Hall (my predecessor on the TULSA) In addition General Pedro A. Del Valle lives here, and I see him fairly frequently. = Again please forgive my remissions.I do hope this finds things well with you. Sincerely, William W. Paca Colonel United State Marine Corps Retired." PARTY AT CHEFOO CLUB To celebrate the TULSA's good score Jack wanted to give a party at the Chefoo Club for all the ship's officers.I bought hand painted place cards, candles,Japaese lanterns as the party as to be outdoors on a lovely summer night.Every officer was invited even though there were only three wives attached to the ship at that time. There was much good conversation for twenty-six guests.After every other guest had gone, the wife of the executive officer, Rachel Doughty came up to me & said, "Sophie, you ought to know better than to seat me in candle light. It is not becoming to me." NEARLY STRANDED AT WEI-HAI-WEI As we approached Wei-Hai-Wei, I became excited because I had often enjoyed breakfast at Gertrude Rice's home in Tientsin,where we were served in bed.The coffee pot was red pottery with pewter,& the cream pitcher & sugar bowl were also red pottery with pewter-lovely pieces of china as well as being useful & unique & Gertrude told me that they had come from Wei-Hai-Wei.It was a beautiful town developed by Germans but given back to China after World War I. I wanted to buy a Wei-Hai-Wei coffee & tea service of this red pottery with silver trim.But to my disappointment the ship anchored out quite a distance. We could not even see Wei-Hai-Wei from the ship.But a smll boat was leaving our freighter & without even going to my cabin to get my purse I persuaded Gertrude Rice to get into the boat with me with me for the trip to Wei-Hai-Wei. I took it for granted that the Chinese man running the small motor boat was on an errand for my freighter & would certainly return to it.I don't know why,but we left twelve-year-old Nathalie Rice on the freighter when we made our hurried departure,& we waved to her as we left.Our boatman spoke no English,but I believed he understood us when he nodded assent to my questioning him as to whether we could have two hours in Wei-Hai-Wei before returning to our ship. It was getting to be late afternoon & I did not want to be in the Chinese city after dark.We started off happily & even found the shop which sold the Wei-Hai-Wei coffeee & tea sets. There I charged a set to be sent to the TULSA as I had no money with me in my haste to get into the departing small boat.When night threatened,we returned to our dock,but found no small motor boat.At first we were not alarmed,but when we heard the freighter's whistle sounding repeatedly & impatiently & when no small boat appeared as darkness approached, we bargained with a sampan to row us out to the freighter. Gertrude paid him from her purse & he tried hard to row us but made litle headway with the heavy seas.He managed to reach a Chinese junk sailing along in the wind, & we again bargained for a ride & paid the owner of the junk to take us aboard.The wind held, & the junk mnade good progress with the large square sails & we again met a difficult transfer from the junk to the freighter.The captain of the freighter was greatly annoyed by the delay & stated he would have stranded us if Nathalie had not tearfully appealed for him to wait for her mother & Mrs. Barrett. SHANGHAI SUMMER 1931 ASHLEY SISTERS AND TOPSY From Chefoo we went to Shanghai where we lived at the Palace Hotel but aside from having clothes made in Shanghai and a very enjoyable luncheon at the home of ships' chandler Ah Sing I could do very little socially as my hands were very sore. However, I did spend one happy evening at the home of Mickie and Maimie Ashley and their brother. Mickey was Jack's old friend from MARBLEHEAD days in 1927. She was born in China and worked as secretary to the local head of Standard Oil Company of New York. She and her sister had adopted a Chinese girl, Topsy, who lived with them until Maimie became a prisoner of the Japanese in 1941 after Pearl Harbor. Mickey had gone to the states, but Maimie was waiting in hopes that Topsy could obtain permission to come with her to the United States. Maimie did hear Topsy calling her by name in the Japanese prison camp, but she feared the Japanese would take reprisals against Topsy if she was seen with an American. Topsy disappeared and must not have survived.Mickie Ashley letters 1937 and 1970 appear atend of this chapter and tell of Japanese brutality. = Knowing I would return to the United States with Jack via Europe in early 1932, I ordered many new clothes made up for me in Shanghai. We attended a long play at a Chinese theater where we were given steaming hot towels to refresh ourselves during the long performance. RETURN TO COURT HOTEL TIENTSIN When we returned to the Court Hotel Mr. Isemonger was concerned about my physical condition. He recommended the same Dr. Grice, whom I had seen for indigestion when I first arrived in Tientsin. Dr. Grice called my hand condition "pomphylyx" caused by too much medication. he scraped much sore tissue away surgically and applied silver nitrate and asked me to wear white cotton gloves. My hands did improve toward autumn. SEPTEMBER 19, 1931 SOPHIE SENDS FIRST REPORT OF JAPANESE AGGRESSION AT MUKDEN, MANCHURIA In the winter of l930-31 I had met two American fur buyers in the lobby of the Court Hotel.They bought sea otter fur skins from which the Tientsin tailors made me my very warm & comfortable, long-lasting coat.In September l93l they returned to the hotel & I visited with them before they left for Mukden & other parts of Manchuria to buy furs for their New York concern.Only a few days later they reurned to the hotel,visibly shaken as they had barely escaped with their lives when the Japanese captured Mukden September l8-l9,& they got away on the last train allowed to leave the city- a bribe to Japanese officers was necessary for them to leave.The Japanese claimed that the railroad track to be used by their troops had been bombed by the Chinese,-& they used that as an excuse to occupy Mukden. I immediately telephoned Captain Rice, who was at Taku Bar with the TULSA forty miles east of Tientsin at the mouth of the Hai Ho River,because of unusually low water levels that year, which made navigation to Tientsin inadvisable.He immediately telegraphed the Admiral of the Asiatic Fleet at Shanghai-probably the first report the United States government received.The U.S. ambassador in Tokyo was on vacation. The Navy was told to keep "hands off" the situation.When we did nothing to stop them,the emboldened Japanese militarists established the state of Manchukuo with a puppet emperor Pu Yi.They proceeded to conquer much of North China & attacked Shanghai in l932..Their heady successes in China ultimately encouraged the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, l94l.Had we pushed them out of Manchuria in l93l, we might have avoided large scale conflict later.Secretary of State Stimson & many European leaders favored action, but President Herbert Hoover, a pacifist who built no ships and had lost political support in view of the deep economic Depression, missed the opportunity to nip World War II in the bud.NICHOLSON RUG FACTORY RUSSIAN CONCESSION TIENTSIN North of the Court Hotel and Hai Ho River in Russian concession in Tientsin was located the Nicholson rug factory, where Sophie watched high quality traditional Chinese rugs being hand woven. The pricipal sales outlet was at Peking, and Jack and Sophie purchased a nine by twelve gold living room rug, an eight-by-ten black-bordered dining room rug, and six smaller gold and blue rugs. They used these rugs at 422 Columbia Road Dorchester 1932-3, 712 Stradone road, Bala Cynwyd Pennsylvania 1936-8, 9615 Shore Road, Brooklyn 1939-1941 and 52 Emmonsdale road, West Roxbury 1947 to 1980s, although Bill Barrett's girl friend Anita Douredoure burned a hole in the gold rug with ciagarette ashes in 1933. PEKING NOVEMBER 1931 Sophie accompanied Jack to Peking in November when he went for physical exam for promotion to Lieutenant Commander. The good score of the TULSA in Asiatic Fleet gunnery and maneuvers and strong fitness report from Commander Paul Rice and intensive study for exam helped Jack achieve this promotion. VISITS WITH RICE FAMILY The Barretts had a cordial visit with the Rice family around the December 1931 holidays, and young Nathalie Rice became interested in Sophie's social work experience and became a social worker herself years later. Sophie narrates: "Just before [our] departure Captain and Mrs. Rice asked us if we would spend one night at their home to look after Nathalie while they spent the evening and night in Peking. So we spent the night with Nathalie, and the next morning at breakfast the number one 'boy' [they were adults - this was the term used] inquired of Jack, "Master wantchee eyogg?" Jack had no idea what he was asking about, so the 'boy' repeated this question several times. Finally young Nathalie explained that her father always had two EGGS for breakfast, and the 'boy' was merely inquiring whether Jack wanted eggs for breakfast. He pronounced 'egg' like 'IGG' the "i" being long as it is in "Ike". Jack wanted no part of Chinese eggs, which were always too old for anything but scrambled eggs. Jack liked to tell a [related] story about a man who ordered FRIED eggs in China. The servant said, 'Fly - no can do -- scramble - maybe can.'" John Barrett note The Departure of Sophie and Jack from Tientsin is treated in the next chapter "RETURN FROM THE ORIENT VIA EUROPE December 1931 - March 1932." The Rice family came to the Tientsin railroad station to say goodbye Christmas Day 1931 - then Jack and Sophie had Christmas dinner aboard the TULSA at Taku Bar at the outlet of the Hai Ho River more than thirty miles east. Then they traveled a short distance to Tangku, where they planned to board the Japanese passenger liner CHOWAN MARU to travel to Kobe, Japan. However, there was a terrifying incident when two Japanese sentries crossed their swords in front of Sophie, because there was a secret Japanese miliitary shipyard next door to the commercial ship. The next chapter tells of enjoyable visits to Pagsanjan Canyon, Philippines, botanical gardens in Malaya and Ceylon, the Sphinx and pyramids, and great cities in Europe. A major theme of RED HEADED STEPCHILD is the Japanese brutality and aggression of the 1930s, and letters from Mickey Ashley of Shanghai form the conclusion of this chapter. They also appear with MARBLEHEAD and Harold Fultz materials. DEPARTURE GOODBYE TO RICE FAMILY TIENTSIN- CHRISTMAS DINNER ON BOARD TULSA - ENCOUNTER WITH JAPANESE SENTRIES BOARDING SHIP the anchorage at the entrance of the Hai Ho River was called Tangku (note by Sophie M. Barrett"Jack & I sailed from Tangku to Japan on the Chowan Maru.Tangku is where the Japanese soldiers crossed their swords on my chest when I started to the wrong dock where a Japanese Army troop ship was next to the passenger ship dock."). MADGE 'MICKEY' ASHLEY letters 1937, 1970 - Ashley letter l937 war crimes Shanghai: On November l2, l937 our good friend in China Mickey Ashley wrote from 94 Canton Road in Shanghai China "During July I went to a party & an Indian juggler entertained us.The year so far had been a quiet one & I was wondering what I could put in my usual Christmas letter,so I asked the man to put his performing python around my neck- at least that would be something to write about.Now I've seen so much I don't know where to commence.The war has lasted over three months & we are still in a tight spot.We hate to see the Japanese win, but selfishly hope they will drive the Chinese a few miles out of Shanghai so that our lives & property will be safe.It is a strain to hear guns going day & night,planes droning,explosions, not to be able to sleep.The company (Standard Oil) never mentioned evacuation or took any steps in that direction regarding stenographers in spite of all the U. S. authorities were urging, so I did not evacuate & my sister would not leave without me. However,all the wives & children were sent away at the Company's expense. After the first terrible air raid when everything in Shanghai was at a standstill,with no transportation facilities, they told me to stay home for a couple of days,but we've been working regular hours ever since.Being short staffed-five girls away,three on leave,& two evacuated because they couldn't stand it any longer- we were often very rushed,especially when four fell ill.However,my sister & I took the precaution of having our pasasports ready & the necessary papers made out to enable us to have our little Chinese girl accompany us to the United States if conditions became decidedly worse.I told the office I wasn't staying if the Japs used poison gas in Shanghai. What a lot of red tape- there were so many signatures & guarantees when the Consulate knew an emergency existed & we couldn't possibly leave the (adopted) child here (their adopted daughter, the Chinese child named Topsy- Sophie Barrett note).The greatest danger was the air raids while going to or returning from the office.The horror of the first one will always live in my memory, especially as I saw the planes & heard the antiaircraft guns just as I was approaching the devastated area of "Bloody Saturday" bombing.The huge crater was roped off,but skeletons of charred cars still remained.To watch the white smaoke in the air, to hear the pounding of guns & to know that any moment your own self & car may be a similar tangled mess wasn't pleasant.My stomach felt as if a giant had squeeezed it tight in his huge hand, & only a vacuum remained.Then to know that we were driving into the danger - the Jap men-of-war were firing from the river- & upon arrival at the office to feel the building shake & hear the bang, bang, bang as if a thousand bricks were being flung against the windows- was really terrifying.That same day & during that raid shrapnel fell at Maimie's feet when she left our car.Every day one sees hordes of refugeees with their small bundles without any idea where to go in this crowded place, little lost children- poor bewildered dogs following - cats & other animals are left to wait for death- horribly wounded people, nasty-smalling coffins conveying away soldiers or victims of shrapnel- sick & weary lying on roadsides & families parked for weeks on sidewalks with only straw mats.No wonder disease is rampant.We have all had inoculations against typhoid & cholera & been vaccinated against smallpox.Already two dear friends have paid the price of staying here-they died of dysentery.One was head of the Blind school where my little "Pine Tree" was taken in. The school has been badly damaged & how frightened the blind *& deaf boys must have been.Another friend is dangerously ill with typhoid.The doctors ran short of medical supplies.The pity & tragedy of it all just because a group of men must have more power.If it were possible, I would condemn such to intense suffering the rest of their lives.So many homes had to be abandoned- palaces & cottages alike.The very best of everything was looted- but that wasn't enough.Furniture was hacked to pieces - the Japs say eventually they must buy Japanese goods. food not eaten was strewn about, & malicioius damage done whever possible.In a garden section of the eastern division where we once lived, the Japs have put furniture on the sidewalks while their horses are placed in dining & drawing rooms.Mills have been dismantled & their machinery shipped to Japan for scrap iron.An old friend now seventy-three "Auntie" we call her-has lost practically everything, her beautiful collection of linen, furs, silver, stamps, books- the treasures of fity-two years.She was so overcome over the condition of her home - her own property-that when we visited her that same evening, her face was grey with misery,& she wept- something I've never seen the little person do.Her husband was an artist & art collector- all his ivories & scrolls, stamps - his son's paintings his own embroideries were all gone.Oil paintings not taken were pierced by bayonets - doors & trunks hacked open.The Chinese had been driven out of the district long ago & the Japanese were in complete control as nobody is allowed to carry a bundle without numerous examinations by Japanese sentries-all of her things must have been carried off with the cognizance of the Japanese military.While the fighting continued in the north, & east, we were more or less safe once at home. What beautiful weather & delightful moonlit nights there were -it was difficult to believe that only a few miles away, men were being slaughtered.We preferred rain, because in fine weather planes would drone, then guns roar,-tracer bullets in gay colors would light up the sky,& anti-aircraft guns would spoil the beauty of the night.As the Japs drove the Chinese from the east & north,we in the west then came in danger,but not before those two districts were swept by fire as far as the eye could see.From a tenth story apartment we watched the destruction- our eyes glued to the holocaust-& our hearts sank with pity for those who had escaped the shells but now must run from the fire.. We thanked god fervently those two nights that there was no wind & that a creek separated us from that part of Shanghai.Every day we heard the guns & explosions a little nearer.Fortunately, from the beginning we had dismantled our pretty little home.Cases stood in the hall & only bare necessities were being used. On October 28 the nearness of guns made it imperative to move. 539 On the thirtieth while at dinner shells whizzed past the house- then I decided the hour had come.No trucks could be had at that late hour, so they were ordered for 8:30 AM. We packed until twelve & tried to sleep.I was the last to leave on my bicycle leading the dog.(Now) our one room apartment the size of Maimie's bedroom is jammed, crammed with things, but my sister is clever & has made it liveable.Some of our furnture is with friends, the balance in a garage.Where the sixty-eight thousand poorer Chinese refugees stay I don't know, though numerous refugee camps have been erected.We don't know what emergency awaits us.One morning a huge shell fell in the warehouse adjoining our office- at the same time big department stores were bombed.U.S. Naval experts say that had it exploded, it would have damaged all buildings within a radius of one acre. Our office & we would have gone up in smoke as the yard was full of drums of gasoline.We miss our home, those airy rooms, & the garden.. To be cramped into a small apartment & not even know which trunk contains one's clothes isn't important- but annoying.It's funny how one can tolerate the roar of cannons & explosions & get fussed over petty things. At the office where men's nerves are raw, it is not easy to work. I've seen as many as eleven planes over our place.We are making quilts for refugees., also helping Topsy make strips for gas masks. I hope you will receive this. So many of our cards & letters have gone astray.-Mickey Ashley."In l939 or l940 Mickey Ashley left Shanghai to work for Standard Oil's New York office because the value of "Mex" (Chinese currency ) had fallen so low she could not afford to accept her Shanghai "Mex" salary.We saw her in New York. Now she is retired & lives in Ridgewood New Jersey after years of lecturing about China. Ashley letter SHANGHAI "June 30,l970 from Miss Madge Ashley ("Mickey") 7l5 Hilldrest Road, Ridgewood New Jersey 07450 Dear Sophie (P.S. For twenty years I lectured before women's clubs & garden clubs on China).It is a long time since I heard from you.The last was a card from Honolulu. I hope Jack did not suffer long. I lost my dear Maimie the same year & feel very lost without her.She had a long illness- it was heart. In September l969, I suppose it was too much for me.I had an acute coronary thrombosis & was in hospital a month, two weeks in a nursing home,& had home care for three weeks.I had to learn to walk again & now am going very slowly.I have been at Cape May for a vacation.It is lovely here- so very clean-& the food is excellent. We face the ocean. About twenty years ago my sister & I bought this little house in Ridgewood,& we have been very happy in it.The number is 7l5 Hillcrest Road (not 3l5) Ridgewood, New Jersey 07450. Ridgewood is a purely residential district,& it is kept very nicely.The people were marvelous to me when Maimie died & during my illness.All the years that I worked in New York & when I retired we have kept in touch with Harold Fultz.He suffers badly from emphysema.You asked about my brother. He married a Shanghai American school teacher from Kentucky.They came to the United States over thirty years ago.They have two daughters,who are both married.One has three boys -eight.six & four (years)-& Bob her husband was a Captain in the Marines.He went to Vietnam after three years in Okinawa.He left the Marines & is now with Kodak. The other daughter lives in Dallas & is now a government accountant. They have two girls (six & four years).Brother & Dorothy l;ive in Louisville, Kentucky.I am sorry to say Maimie- who remained in Shanghai while I came to New York to get a job- never saw (her adopted Chinese daughter) "Topsy" again after she was put in the Japanese (concentration) camp where they nearly starved to death until rescued by American fliers.I am "Mickie" & Madge is my real name.You want to know how we met Harold & Jack.The MARBLEHEAD was anchored at the Standard Oil wharf Pootung.The foreigners at the installation were under my boss- therefore I met them all when they came to the office.The families would invite me for weekends, etc.,& include some Navy officers,& then they would escort me home the next day & stay for "tiffen" - lunch & dinner..Several came that way.How my father went to China is that he wanted to see the world- so went on a sailing ship as many pioneers did- & liked the Far East so much he stayed first in Hong Kong- where he met my mother & then in Shanghai.He & a fellow American started the first volunteer fire brigade in China. All the equipment- even the huge fire bells- came from New York.There were so many civil wars that we got used to storing rice & canned goods, filling both tubs with water, & hiding the family silver.Some of our friends were killed, but Maimie only suffered when the Japanese were so rotten to all foreigners.I don't know GraceLiang. The two Russian sisters (Gala & Vera Tsirentchikoff) I hardly knew. I met Gala once at a party,& that's all.I sent your letter to my brother.He represented Lloyd's of London & two steamship companies, so he knew Ah Sing well.We knew Cockeye & "Jelly Belly" (because he had a fat tummy) the tailors.Most American gunboats went to Tsingtao - a summer resort first made beautiful by the Germans- a bit of Europe in China & after World War I taken by the Japanese. One night in Shanghai (spring l927) the MARBLEHEAD GAVE A CONCERT & later a dance.During the show we were asked not to applaud as "There had been a death in one of the Standard Oil families." Then Harold (Fultz) told me confidentially that little Billy Robertson (his father was manager of the installation) had died of cholera.He took ill at noon & was dead in a few hours.Had any of us known I doubt that we would have gone to the dinner & dance, as cholera is a terrible thing, especially as there were so many salads & cold food on the table. ....On November 4, l970 our friend Mickey Ashley of China days whose l937 letter appears in this chapter wrote: My sister Maimie was in the Japanese concentration camp- starved & sick with malaria, but she was never beaten. Some Americans were.Topsy came to the camp & called,'Miss Ashley, Miss Ashley' outside, but Maimie's friends advised her not to answer because the Japs would ill-treat all Chinese who favored Americans. Maimie never saw her again. We presumed she was dead. We lost ever so many valuables, & our Chinese money went to nothing overnight. Our lovely home went for seven thousand dollars U.S currency, & we were lucky to get it. -Mickey (Ashley)" .Letters of Marvin Stone, Captain Jenkins and Gordon Hall to be added here and listing of Sophie Barrett's Chinese purchases. PHOTO p. 4 #27 Shown in all its grandeur, probably for Fleet exercises at Chefoo Spring l931- TULSA commanded by Paul Rice with Jack Barrett as gunnery officer and William W. Paca in charge of U.S. Marines won 1931 annual gunnery competition Asiatic Fleet. TULSA was northernmost ship of Asiaitc Fleet kept nearTientsin and Taku Bar- Hai Ho River for intelligence purposes. Sophie Barrett and Paul Rice sent first report to Navy and State Department of September l9, l931 Japanese aggression andcapture of Mukden, Manchuria - beginning of fourteen year war in Asia. CAPTION p 5-#38 Sophie traveled on commercial freighter along with Gertrude and Nathalie Rice and Rachel Doughtie when gunboat TULSA joined Asiatic Fleet annual maneuvers and gunnery competition late spring -early summer 1931 Sophie used to sing the Navy song "The Wear Clothespins on their noses in North China They wear clothespins on their noses in north China- They wear clothespins on their noses For Chefoo doesn't smell like roses - They wear clothespoins on their noses in North China." There were goats immediately outside her window at the Wineglass boarding house in Chefoo, as accomodations were scarce while the Asiatic Fleet was gathered for spring l931 gunnery and maneuvers, in which Jack's gunboat TULSA won the fleet competition - he was gunnery officer aided by Marine Lt. William Paca. Paul Rice was commander of the TULSA. Sophie was grateful to Chaplain William Maguire, who later played a heroic role at Pearl Harbor December 7, l941, though he remained a non-combatant, and the legend he fired a gun at Japanese airplanes is fictitious. He visited the Barretts in Waikiki and described the work of Jack's Overseas Transportation Office in his l943 book, "The Captain Wears a Cross." As a new navy wife Sophie studied Emily Post's "Etiquette" text carefully. She gave a party to celebrate the TULSA's victory in gunnery. The wife of the Executive officer complained about being seated too near the candles -she said "Candlelight does not become me." Rachel Claude Doughtie used to tell a tale of a visitor who came to see her mother's Maryland family for the weekend and stayed for forty years.Sophie Barrett and Gertrude Rice took a small Chinese rowboat to shore in Weihaiwei to buy fine teasets ornamented with pewter.They nearly were stranded, with difficulty returning to their southbound British freighter.


near Sphinx p 5 #39 (S} {7}


Sophie and friends near Sphinx Egypt January l932 Tourists generally toured Egypt while passenger ships slowly transited Suez canal.Sophie and Jack stayed at famous old Shepherd's hotel and sat near violinist Jascha Heifetz and his wife actress Florence Vidor in the dining hall there. BLACK NOTEBOOK TWO p 160 Letter from Grandpa Barrett called "Pa' by all [he had very little formal education, kept his account books expertly but retained habit of not capitalizing pronoun "i" but often capitalized initial letters of words]"October 10, 1934 640 East Seventh Street, South Boston, Masachusetts Dear Jack and Sophie, i arrived at Boston Monday and 6 and i had Had 2 Very Nice Young Ladies To Greet Me Home Mollie and Katherine Kinnaly. Was Home at 6:30. I met a Mr. Roberts on the ship Saturday night and he said he was a friend of yours and would Be Glad to Help Me in Any Way. i Thanked Him and Told Him I would call on Him if Need be. I saw Him when I was leaving and wished him all the good things possible i did not want any help at any time. I was all right. I was the first at the table and had good meals and enjoyed them. ThenSunday morning I had the dining room to myself as the others did not come to eat and all day most of them were in bed or laid out in chairs with blankets rolled about them.. I thought they would find me a blue ribbon or some prize as they said I was the best sailor on the ship and were very much surprised to see me smoking a cigar and said so. We had a very nice sunset and I watch until it disappeared. The wind and sea did a very good song and dance for me and kept it up until we were at the [Cape Cod] Canal. I sat outside in the middle of the boat and watched the wind and waves do their best to please me. The stern of the boat would sink down then the bow would sink. The sea would duck under the bow and form a big wave and when the wave broke and spray came up, the wind would take it in to us and form a perfect rainbow. i watched and enjoyed waves dancing about for me. pf course I pitied the people who could not. Different people told me how hungry they were but did not dare to eat. Had one man from Boston tell a friend 'that man was down first for every meal'. The Captain and Me sat side by side. When he left me he said he was going to work till morning. a flock of gulls chase me until dark Saturday. Don't know where their hotel is but think it must be far out to sea. i want to thank you both for a good first class vacation. Nobody could possibly have a better time and enjoyed it any more than i did every minute.Bill called me Monday night and he expected me at his place Tuesday to stay until he was coming to Boston. You would think I was a lost chicken. All the neighbors was so glad to see me Back even the dogs seemed to smile Sport don't bother with me but he came up to the barn and Wagged his tail and put his head so i could pat him. Mr. Curtis saw it and remarked that Sport was glad to see me and Skippie i think worried alot but she had Mollie The gang broke the lock as they could not pull the staples on the barn. We are not the only ones as the whole neighborhood is bothered. The cops are busy after the gang. Mollie dug a trench from the house to the barn and Ed Curtis put in a wire. Now if the gang opens the door the bell rings in the house and we are supposed to call the Station at once and the Police will do the rest. i cannot think of any more nonsense to write so i will now stop. signed Pa"


Bill and Virgina Barrett starting honeymoon - New York. p 5 #40 {W} {M}


Left to right: old South Boston neighbor Katherine Kinnaly l900-l986, Mollie Mary Frances Barrett l898-l967, and newlywed Virginia Brady and William Jospeh Barrett leaving New York for Bermuda honeymoon September,l938.Katherine Kinnaly was a neighbor of Jack and Sophie in West Roxbury about l949 and in Roslindale until she passed away at age eight-six. Her brother Ed. was a merchant seaman, and Dan worked for the post office.Katherine often escorted mollie to Darien Ct. to visit by train, and in later years she helped the memoirs with many recollections of Bill and Mollie and theiir father and mother, of young Bill Barett, of the Lane cousins in Melrose, of Mae Herlihy and other South boston neighbors.Katherine accompanied Sophie to many meetings of roslindale historical Society.