Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos


Genealogiucal Data 72-1223 }C3{


Mary Ann O Farrell 1831-1896 appears in MSSACHUSETTS records as Daughter of Daniel O Farrell and Ellen O Mahony. She was from Kilbarry six miles north of Bandon, married Daniel Buckley of Moskeigh, Tamplemartin or Newcestown Parish six miles north of Bandon, and they were in Boston for birth of their first son John J. Buckley, December 1852.Mary Ann had a sister Margaret O Farrell who lived about 1830-1898 - same parents- - Margaret married Jeremiah Donovan and had daughter Margaret Mary Donovan born Ireland abou 1852, who came to Boston 1855 or later and had some recollections of Ireland. She marrried sterotyped named Hartigan and had six children, Jeremiah, James, Gertrude, Mary (May) 1886-1979, Edward 1889-1978, and John about 1893-1970 - the last of whom had wife nmaed Greene and four or five children including John, William, Barbara Hartigan. These sisters Margaret and Mary Ann O Farrell ,were probably sisters of John O Farrell of Kilbarry who married a Hurley and had son Dan born around 1870, whose wife a McCarthy had Sheila 1913 who marrried William Hennessy family of seven- Joan 1917 married Dan Collins Lasnagat Newcestown parish and Sean O Farrell b. 1921,who maRRIED ANN BENNETT AND HAD FAMILY OF SEVEN CATHERINE; twins Daniel and Anna; Mary; John, Claire, and Bev. DANIEL A. BUCKLEY died Melrose April 1910, and Massachusetts records indicate he was probably eighty-three years old, born about 1927 in Ireland.His parents are listed as John Buckley and Catherine Murphy.This ancestor John Buckley was listed in 1827 and 1852 Irish tax censuses as renting sixty acre Moskeigh farm which has remained in Buckley family to 1990s, passing to John's son Michael 1834-1918, and then his son Patrick, and Patrick's daughter Ann Loretto Buckley born 1907 alive 1998. Loretto's brother Richard Buckley 1904-1998 married Bridget Regan of Gurranes and had four children Kate [married William Meldrum - two sons Dominic and Raymond Meldrum and five daughters 29 Reendowney Place,Friars Walk, Cork City] Mary Mrs. Murphy, Bridget Mrs. Jerry Collins Ballinhassig, and Patrick Buckley, wife Abby deceased one daughter Breda.Richard hears that his grandfazther Michael Buckley 1834-1918 was one of "seven men and four women" born to John Buckley and Catherine Murphy of Moskeigh. Of these Michael and Jerry Buckley had large families in Ireland, Daniel, Thomas, and John came to Massachusetts, and the others are unknown.Jack Barrett remembered traveling to Milford southwest of Boston about 1893 and visiting relations there with his aunt Minnie Buckley, who corresponded with the relations in Ireland.Recrods indicate that Dan Buckley's brothers Tom and John moved to Milford, Masssachusetts and worked as bootmakers. Tom's wife was named Sullivan, and they had deight children but no grandchildren. An address book Minnie Buckely of Melrose used about 1903-2904 listed her cousin Katie L. Buckley at 138 Parkhurst St., and that turned out to ber the residence of bootmater Thomas Buckley born about 1835, had son born at sea 1855, but died 1899. This Katie Buckley when about forty yeasrs of age married a Mr. Brennan from Rhode Island but had no children.The last of Tom's children died about 1920 and small assets were divided among ten cousins, inidicating no chloser reations.Another of the Moskeigh Buckley brothers named John had five children in Ireland but moved to Milford Massachustts after his wife died.He had two sons - one killed in railroad accident about 1882 - and three daughters - Mrs. McGrath, Mrs. Coviell, and another. There was only one grandson John McGrath, born about 1887- served in World War I- active in Veterans Organization in Milford- died November 1969 without descendants. Paish records began in 1833, and Michael Buckley's birth is recorded 1834, and his parents John Buckley and Catherine Murphy show agreement with Massachusetts records. Michael's wife was Mary O Reilly from the Kilbritain area Cork, and they had at least seven children - a daughter {Ellen?] became a Presentation nun South Dakota- a son John went to United States and had four daughters - the eldest Helen was born in Philadelphia 1894- married a first cousin Richard in Buffalo New York and had one sone Robert Buckley about 1931-1993 - one of her sisters Mrs. carlin had ten children and forty grandchildren in Buffalo and neighboring Blasdell.This family also lived a few years in Milford and South Boston {East Eight Street about 1897] before setting in Buffalo New York area. Michael Buckley 1834-1918 of Moskeigh also had a daughter Kate who married an O Mahony with a farm at "The Lake" Castle Lack a few miles northeast of Bandon. She had at least three sons and a daughter, and the three sons had families {Mary Ellen O Mahony spent eight years in East Cambridge Massachusetts- returned 1932 to live with her mother and then her brother Tim on the family farm -passed away 1973.] Tim O Mahony eldest son married Norah Hickey,-had three children now with families of their own - John O Mahony presently operates the farm at the Lake, Catle Lack and his siters Kate and Ann are married and have families.Michael Buckley 1834-1918 also had sons Patrick and Michael who married sisters named Swindell and had families of four and nine respectively.This younger Michael was in the Royal Irish Constabulary prior to World War I, and then worked in Barytes mines near Clonakilty on Cork coast.His nine children were Richard eldest born about 1896, Patrick, Michael, Marcella, Lena (Helena), Suzy, Cyril, Geraldine, and leslie, born about 1915.They lived for a time on Watergate Street in Bandon,and seven of them eventually settled in Ilford, Essex England. The eldest of these nine eventually settled in Buffalso New York, married his first cousin Helen Buckley mentioned above, and had one son Robert, who traveled widely for Singer Corporation. The youngest of the nine Leslie Buckley and his wife Irene moved about 1956 to Clybucca, New South Wales with their two children and some grandchildren. They had buffalo hybrid "beefalo" on their cattle ranch.Cyril Buckley was in war work iin Belfast area in World War II. John Barrett visited him and his wife Bertha and their Ilford home 1971 - their daughter Mrs. Cronin lived elsewhere buit their sons Gerard and Paul were home then, and Gerard has corresponded extensively - was in Perth Australia l974-5 and now lives in Brentwood Essex with wife Jane and teen agers Dominick and Victoria. Patrick and Michael Bucley of Ilford had families of six and seven - their sisters Marcella, Lena, Suzy, and Geraldine- were unmarried - ran a boarding house for a time at 8 York Road, Ilford, Essex. The irish were not permitted to keep parish records befopre 1833,but memories are long, and Ann Loretto Buckley and her brother and neighbors had a great deal of additional early information.In the old days it was the custom to name the first son and daughter for their father's parents, and the second son and daughter for their mother's parents. The landlord of the Moekeigh farm was the Duke of Devonshire related to Henry Cavendish, the scientist who discovered hydrogen gas, 1760s. One Buckley cousin "Corley" {Cornelius] Buckley was woods ranger 1880s at "The Duke's Woods",a small private forest about two miles southeast of the Buckley farm Moskeigh. In 1855 for one year Jack Barrett's grandparents are listed in Boston directories at "Boston Wharf" in an area then at north tip of A Street South Boston-- adjoining waters of fort Point Channel later filled in. There was an 1855 Massachusetts State census- a single copy was on file 1970s in State House Boston- and in it next to the Daniel Buckleys was a neighbor Simon Buckley with several children. He appears to have been a Moskeigh relative. After his half-sister Mollie Barrett died in 1967 of bowel cancer, Jack Barrett found and recognized photos of his grandparents, his mother, and her brother John and sisters Minnie and Maggie Buckley and many of his grandfather's friends whom he recognized and remembered. These were in the attic at 640 East Seventh Street South Boston, along with Jack's baby shoes and a lock of his mother's hair from 1889. There was also a leather notebook of Jack's aunt Minnie, with a number of addresses, including "Mr. Michael Buckley, Moskeigh, Bandon, county Cork, Ireland."His grand-daughter Loretto Buckley in extensive conversations and letters 1970s recollected that he used to correspond with American nieces, and that in 1918 he had in his living room an autographed photo of an American relative, General Michael Lenihan. Research indicated that General Michael Lenihan was a native of Hopkinton Masssachusetts, [where the Boston Marathon begins- a town adjoining Milford twenty-five milkes southwest of Boston] - however in France in 1918 he commanded a special battalion for Irish-Americans of New York State.The Lenihans are related to Buckleys, but fairly distantly through a very large clan of Graingers - they had a Buckley great-great-grandmother who married a convert named Granger or Grainger and had family of thirteen in West Cork in 1830s. General Lenihan had a niece who taught many years at Randall Morris School West Roxbury. There was also a family named McSweeeny in Milford with a Buckley great-great-grandmother. One of the older descendants in Milford was Cyril Kellett, who remembered the Buckleys who were bootmakers at 138 PARKHURST St and agreed they were related to his grandfather Corly McSweeney. "Corly's" mother was a Buckley from near the Lee River. Cyril Kellett's first cousin Rev. Francis Sweeney taught English and humanities and Boston College, and his brother Gerard Sweeney ran a travel agency in Milford 1970s. Loretto believed her father's father's mother Catherine Murphy of Moskeigh born around 1800 was a member of a clan known as the "Quarry" Murphys.Murphy is the commonest surname in Ireland, so it is necessary to know some history of clans in order to trace relations. A number of Templemartin neighbors were believed to be distant relatives. Before coming to this I should go back and say that among the sons of John Buckley and Catherine Murphy of Moskeigh [1827-1852] there was a son Jerry who had about eight children,{1860s] many of whom went to U.S. Middle West, but one daughter Kate maRRIED a Sheehy who ran the Muskerry bar on Crookstown Road and had four sons and a daughter around 1900-1910. Of these, Jack Sheehy, unmarried 1908-1980 lived on the farm of his second cousin Loretto Buckley, herding cattle, planting cabbage, and potatoes,playing accordion, driving milk to creamery. His brother Jerry went to USA had three sons Jim in Connecticut and two in California Jerome and another.But the eldest Maurice Sheehy born about 1903 married Kate O Halloran said to be about a third cousin through his great grandmother and the Quarry Murphy clan. Thier six children included Peggy who married John Murphy Moskeigh and had family of nine - Jerry Sheehy Gurranes plumber with daughter Geraldin and son Joseph who teaches science .-Chrissy Sheehy Clarke with three sons and daughter Kilbeg, Norah Manning family of four east of Cork city,Patrick Sheehy brick mason - wife Anny and family of three at Maurice's old house Moskeigh, and Maurice junior "Mossy" - probably married recent years.Another third cousin through the "Quarry" Murphy line was said to be Jim Hallahan on the hill at north of Moskeigh who was born 1890-s received a pension for services as teenage "runner" nIrish War of Independence about 1920- and lived into his nineties. The O Farrell relations of Jack Barrett's mother's mother also preserved a great deal of information.Their farm has been in the family over two hundred years, and an ancestor Tim O Farrell set up a burial plot in 1779 with a stone in Templemartin churchyard when his daughter Ellen died in 1779. Individual stones were not erected, but family members were buried there until the 1940s.Most of Jack Barrett's ancestors have Cork surnames, but the O Farrell ancestors probably came to Cork from central Ireland around the Shannon or west Leinster hundreds of years ago. There were two farms in the Newcestown vicinity associated with the family - the one at Kilbarry is earlier, but Sean O Farrell's uncle inherited the other property near Beal na MBlath and Crookstown, which was sold to the Hennessys, and then Sheila O Farrell married Bill Hennessy and had seven children who later lived at 22 Wilton Gardens, Dennehy's Cross, Cork City. The Kilbarry O Farrells and the South Boston Hartigans and Jack Barrett have O Mahony ancestry. Traditionally the O Mahonys claim a very ancient genealogiy back to 300 A.D., but apparently reiable records indicated they are descended from Ireland's greatest hero, High King Brian Boru, who defeated Danish invaders on the east coast north of Dublin at Clontarf in 1014 A>D> when he was eighty-eight years of age. Then Gurranes in Templemartin parish was the center of the O Mahony clan for hundreds of years in the Middle Ages, and archaeological remains of O Mahony sites in 1400s occur a few miles away at Castle Lack. The 1997 history of Templemartin parish gives some information. The Templemartin churchyard ius very ancient, and a font recently dug up sees to be about four hundred years ol. The O Mahoney.s were landowners in this area, and sometimes associated with the O Dalys who were bards, Jack Barrett''s father's mother was a Daly,but some records say she was born Ireland,others Boston. Jack's second cousins the Hartigans lived in South Boston from 1899 to 1917 at D and Third Streets, where Jack often saw them. Their father had grown up in Maryland where Gertrude was born about 1884.Then May was born Philadelphia,and Ed and John the youngest in Boston.Their father and the two eldest boys died of spinal tuberculosis."Photos of Jeremiah and Edward Hartigan appear in "History of Boston College Athletics" by Nathaniel Hasenfus. The father was a stereotyper.His health and work were factors in their moves.Mrs. Hartigan's mother had rental properties in South boston, and a cousin Bat Farrell was a tenant on West Sixth St. near D. -He was a relative "a step out" - exactly how close not known.Jack Barrett was very friendly with TB-crippled James Hartigan born about 1880 who was a newspaper reporter in Bath Maine about 1907- died South Boston 1912-Jack frequently saw him in final months.Edward Hartigan played football at Boston College and was graduated 1911 then appointed to West Point Military Academy, where he was a classmate of Dwight Eisenhower and Omar Bradley for one year[then frequently saw them at reunions and corresponded]. After his brother Jim's death 1912, he fewlt needed at home and entered the priesthood- ordanined 1917- had parishes North Weymoth and many years in Everett- and started Camp Cedar Crest for children in Green Harbor,Marshfield on South Shore. He viiited the O Farrell farm at kilbarry 1929, taking photos, and they remembered his vist when john Barrett made inquiry 1971. May Harigan visited Jack at Revenue Cutter School Arundel Cove South Baltimore Feb. 1910 and remembered the clamshells in the pavement.She gave the Barretts a great deal of asistance locating the cousins 1970-l971.


Morison 72-1224 H-A-W-A-I-I + }A{


] I am also looking for information as to what causes the oscillation of the sun above and below the galactic plane. Why doesn't the sun follow a simple elliptical orbit around the center of galactic mass? Why does it keep passing through the galactic plane? The sun is said to be approaching a point in the constellation Hercules east of Vega at present but in longer run on a course towatd the present position of Deneb. How far can its path be traced backward? Did it pass near Sirius or other stars in general direction of Canis Major? What are the widest long-period binaries that have been observed to date? Any information will be appreciated -John B. Barrett 113 W. Third St., Port Angeles WA98362-2824 MAIN TEXT ------ ASTRONOMERS, ASTROPHYSICISTS:--I am looking for people who might take an interest in the possibility of removing mass from the sun to prolong life on earth. The main obstacle is the huge amount of energy needed for maximum results, but I am reasonably sure it can and will be done. Very little has been published on the subject. I have been doing a good deal of work on this since April,2000. I would be interested to have responses from physicists or anyone interested in aspects of the problem. I have tried to combine material from a series of essays begun 1995.-. PROLONG LIFE ON EARTH: REMOVE MASS FROM SUN John Barrett June 22 text;I have been researching whether someday it will be possible to remove mass from the sun. to keep the earth habitable many millions of years longer, and energy sources for long term human survival. In 1992 I read the Caldeira-Kasting NATURE article estimating that the sun becomes about ten per cent warmer every billion years, and about 1995 I attended a talk by James Kasting at Harvard, which was hosted by Professor Heinrich Holland, the paleosol specialist. [Professors John Imbrie and Warren Prell of Brown University participated in discussion.] I have been interested in the problem whether life on earth can be prolonged by removing mass from sun. It appeared extremely difficult for space ships to penetrate close to sun's surface, but April 7 I realized that heating the surface of the sun would increase loss of mass in solar wind. It will take a great deal of energy to achieve optimum effect, but the time frame would be very long. Fusion powered lasers, reflectors or greenhouse gases to reflect sun's own energy, magnetically contained anti-matter, disruption of sun's surface to expose hotter interior gas would be strategies, or beaming energy from hot objects in deep space or using nearby brown dwarfs as hydrogen source for fusion all come to mind. Since 1996 I have been at 113 West. Third St., Port Angeles WA98362-2824. I have written a series of essays on future of sun and life on earth- In the essay below please note NINE NUMBERED ENERGY SOURCES 1. Fusion Powered LASERS orbiting sun 2. REFLECTORS around sun 3. A GREENHOUSE GAS around sun to warm its surface - this probably would need to be contained by a strong magnetic field to keep it in place 4. ANTIMATTER - magnetically contained - probably manufactured in deep space as a means to bring energy here in 'storage' 5. DISRUPT relatively cool SUN SURFACE 5500 degrees Celsius and expose hotter layers beneath deeper 6. BEAM HIGH ENERGY from DEEP SPACE Develop technology to beam high energy long distances from far away hot objects - periphery of black holes and neutron stars -possibly bend the intense beams of pulsars. 7. NEARBY BROWN DWARF HYDROGEN Find nearby sub-star "Brown dwarfs" that probably exist within two or three light years from earth and utilize their hydrogen or hydrogen clouds in space for fusion. 8. OORT CLOUD COMETS Oort cloud comets within half a light year from sun as hydrogen source. 9. Design HEAT RESISTANT SPACE SHIPS concentrations occur in sunspots? Three other points: I. Do helium concentrations occur in sunspots? It would be desirable to remove a portion of helium as well as the lighter hydrogen. II.Second, success in reducing mass of sun would change orbits of earth and planets - they would move outerward, which might be helpful in long run but would need to be calculated very carefully. III. - About seventy per cent of the sun's 433,000 miles radius, heat from fusion comes out by radiation through very hot dense, plasma. In the outer thirty per cent of the sun's radius - which must be 129,000 miles - more than five times circumference of earth, plasma convection is the main way the heat comes to surface. I want to learn more about this convection process. One important technique is helioseismology. Whether there is any way future engineers could affect this convection process I don't know at present. I have seen estimates it takes a million years for energy to get to the surface after it is generated by fusion at the core. - - John Barrett Remainder is from April 22 essay: SUN MASS Removal STAGES- Blaise Pascal -= Alpha Centauri - LEAH - RACHEL :- Astronomy Professor David Latham has suggested that it will take a great deal of energy to achieve the ideal maximum amount of mass removal from the sun to keep the earth habitable as long as possible. However the time frame is very long. The basic equation is mv squared or m DELTA v squared, where m is the desired amount of mass removed, and Delta V is the difference between starting velocity and escape velocity. I believe that "m" the ideal amount of mass to remove over four or five billion years is not precisely known at present. The optimum rate of removal is likely to be a curve rather than a straight line. Too rapid a beginning might trigger an ice age or orbital instability of earth and planets. The longest-lived stars have 7.5 to eight per cent of the mass of the sun and are estimated to remain on Main Sequence with stable heat output about five thousand trillion years [5 x 10 to twelfth power]. In atlas of the Universe 1998 I see an estimate that sun equals 333,000 earth masses. Suppose that in four billion years, it was desired to remove eighty per cent of present solar mass - this is very likely more than enough, but illustrates the nature of the calculation. This would mean if one proceeded in a linear fashion, that one per cent of solar mass should be eliminated in the first fifty million years, dividing four billion by eighty. So 3,330 earth masses would be removed in fifty million years, or 66.6 earth masses per one million years - around one earth mass every fifteen thousand years. The acceleration would be complex. I have heard the escape velocity at the surface of the sun estimated between 384 miles per second and 500 kilometers per second. However, the heat of the solar surface 5500 C and the much higher heat and convective motion just below the surface may contribute significantly to the starting energy as we come to understand how the existing solar wind forms and the stellar winds of other stars,including those hotter than the sun. For seven years I have been studying whether it would be possible to remove ANY mass from the sun. I call this stage "Leah" after the older first wife of the Biblical patriarch Jacob. Before we get to phase Leah, where we might experimentally try to remove a small amount of mass from the sun to observe technology, there would be phase "Blaise Pascal" where we would do thought experiments and test ideas theroetically. If the technology appeared risky, there might be a phase Alpha where we might test procedures on the star Alpha Centauri before working on the sun. As a target, perhaps an experimental small operation to remove a little mass from the sun might be targeted for the year 2099, within the lifetime of persons now living. Since April 7, 2000 a number of possible technologies have come to mind, but they will require huge amounts of energy.Most of the technologies involve heating the solar surface to increase the amount of mass that escapes in the solar wind. At present it has been estimated about one hundred trillionth of solar mass escapes each year in naturally occurring solar wind. Hopefully, the sun's own energy can be utilized in one way or another.It is conceivable that over thousands and millions of years ways can be found to store energy from giant objects deep in space,and then beam or transport it Most technologies involve application of some form of heat to the solar surface. There may also be the possibilty of disrupting the surface chromosphere and exposing slightly deeper layers which are much hotter. In the order I have thought of them, these are techniques for warming the solar surface- locally or around the entire surface. [1] Lasers - possibly utilizing hydrogen from the sun itself for fusion power. [2] Reflectors or mirrors to aim the sun's own heat back at the surface. [3} A greenhouse gas - if one can be maintained stably in the lower corona, this would be the ultimate mirror or reflector. Extremely high million-degree C. temperatures occur in portions of the lower corona, and the forces that cause them are not completely known- very likely magnetism is involved. This strategy would take mass relatively uniformly from all areas of the surface. It would be desirable to remove mass from the polar regions of the sun, so that it would travel away from the orbit of the earth and other planets. [4] Disruption of the cooler chromosphere to expose hotter interior gas or plasma. [5] ANTI-MATTER- would be extremely effective annihiliating some of the sun's mass and generating astonishing heat if ANTIMATTER can be found, manufactured and handled and contained, as by very strong magnetic fields. There might be advantages in concentrating the ANTIMATTER at very low temperatures near absolute zero possibly utilizing superconductivity to assist handling, which is far in the future .[6] collect energy from hot distant sources such as black holes, neutron stars,supernovas, giant stars and beam it to solar system[7] find nearby BROWN dwarfs believed to exist within a few light years of earth and utilize their hydrogen or intragalactic clouds for FUSION. [8] Utilize Oort Cloud comets gravitationally bound to solar system as hydrogren source. [9] Design heat-resistant space ships that can withstand tmperatures above 3000 degrees C. These might use refractory materials such as tantalum carbide which melts above 3800 C - various forms of carbon perhaps fullerene or nanotube - tungsten, thorium oxide. Albert Brown of Joyce suggests solar heat might be turned to electricity, at the same time cooling outer surface and powering space craft and lasers. He also suggests comet ice might contribute - a space ship could even operate for a time placed inside comet ice. The sun is presently about seventy-one per cent hydrogen, twenty-seven per cent helium, and two per cent heavier elements. The removal of helium probably would favor stability, but the helium tends to be concentrated near the core, as David Latham pointed out in 1995. Recently Sean Root of Port Angeles heard a broadcast on a TV history channel in which something was said about "helium bubbles" observed in sunspots. If this is true and if they can be targeted, a substantial amount of helium over a long time can be removed from the convective outer zone of the sun,which constitutes thirty per cent of solar radius and sixty-five per cent of volume. Doug Wadsworth of Port Angeles and Western Washington University at Bellinghan points out that if it is possible to reduce solar mass significantly, orbits of planets will be affected by reduced gravitational pull, and planets will move further from the sun. This will help delay or prevent over-heating the earth and may be of great long run importance. Effects on earth and future colonies on satellites of outer planets need careful calculation. It appears likely a time will come when much of the world's population will move to satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Mars is very small. Colonies can be sent to distant space, but moving all persons and animals and plants is much more difficult, but relevant to democratic planning and popular will. Someday it will be possible, but it is important to gain time by keeping earth habitable as long as possible. Huge amounts of energy will be required either for survival on earth, where overheating of sun will become a problem- or on the outer planets, where fusion energy will eventually be the main fuel- how much hydrogen would be needed for 2-3 billion year survival on outer planets? It comes to mind that the outer planets are mostly hydrogen - it is sugggested their cores may be largely metallic hydrogen, which conducts electricity under pressure. A recent issue of Astronomy magazine suggests that brown drawfs are likely to turn up within a few light years' distance from the earth. They might be excellent fuel sources, whether for my project of reducing mass of sun, or for heating life on the rocky outer satellites. I still hope the best source of energy will be the sun itself. If advanced civilizations already exist in Milky Way galaxy, might we detect them diverting pulsar beams to places where they need energy? I see much progress on non-baryonic matter and other topics. I found article on June 1999 observation of sun's galactic rotation relative to galactic center A website "Astronomy the guide to the Universe" by Annemie Maertens of Belgium estimates the sun is around 28,000 lightyears from the galactic center and completes one revolution in about 240 million years at about 125 miles per second. The sun oscillates north and south of the plane of the galaxy with a 66 million year period. Currently the sun is around sixty light years north of the galactic plane and will reach a maximum elongation of 250 light years from the plane in 14 million years. In the long term the sun maintains its distance from the galactic center, but for the next fifteen million years, its course will be moderately inward, aimed toward a point in constellation Hercules near Lyra east of the bright star Vega. The Maertens website gives excellent diagrams of the high-vacuum "Local Bubble" where the sun has been for two million years, and some interstellar clouds in the "Aquila Rift" the sun will pass through in fifty thousand years. I-134 It may be noted that the command set-up was defective,both at Pearl Harbor and at Washington, for coping with this situation. Adm Kimmel took too much on himself. By a long-standing agreement incorp in the offi public Joint Action of Army and Navy, the Army in Oahu was responsible for the safety of ships in harbor. The Navy's share in that defense was properly the responsibility of Admiral Bloch, commandant of the 14th Naval district. Admiral Bloch, not Admiral Kimmel, was the opposite number to General Short in Oahu. Kimmel might have exercised his command and training functions at sea with the Pacific Fleet, and made Bloch his deputy ashore for cooperating with the Army in the defense of Oahu.But Kimmel stayed ashore, and despite his preoccupation with training, he was constantly going over Bloch's head or interfering with his functions.[77.This was a difficult situation for Admiral Bloch, who was a former Commmander in Chief of the Fleet and Kimmel's senior.]The result would possibly have been the same in any case, since Bloch took the same view of probable Japanese action as Kimmel; but the actual set-up bedeviled the command situation in the important field of air reconnaissance, dividing responsibility among three flag officers of the Navy and two general officers of the Army. The same may be said of the customary restrictions on the Office of Naval Intelligence at Washington. That office, to the head of which there was appointed on 15 October 1941 Rear Admiral Theodore Stark Wilkinson, did a thorough job of gathering intelligence about the enemy; but it was not allowed to evaluate, [78. Excepting what Admiral Wilkinson called the static part - facts and figures about Japanese armed forces, industry, etc.] much less to disseminate, the information so gathered.Evaluating this material (which included the decrypted dispatches between the Japanese government and its agents abroad) , predicting future movements of the Japanese Navy, and deciding who should be let in on this information was the responsibility of the war Plans offficer (Rear Admiral Richmond K. Turner) on Admiral Stark's staff. [79.This setup is desribed in detail in Admiral Wilkinson's testimony in the Hart and Hewitt inquiries...] Admiral Wilkinson was "ordered not to develop thye enemy intentions", 80... although his office contained several officers trained in the Japanese language, including the circumlocutory manner of Japanese writing that is lost in translation. Again, as Admiral Wilkinson made the same underestimate of the enemy's capabilities as did everyone else, [81.p 1757] the resultmight have been the same if he had been made responsbile. ... subordinate and junior officers who had but a part of it were the ones who put little pieces together and , too late to give adequate warning,pointed to 0730 December 7 as the hour of destiny. Kimmel and Short might have been favored by Washington with more intelligence data, such as the decrypted dispatch from the Japanese governmet to its consul at honolulu asking for the mooring and berthing plan at Pearl; [82....] but they received enough information about code-burning and the like in Japanese consulates to have been more alert than they were...the fact remains that Pearl harbor was the most important U S base in the pacific and thaty war was imminent, as everyone whon read the newspapers knew. It was an outpost,too, where military men are supposed to bealert at all times, like a sentry walking his post. [83. .. The Sec. of War expressedthis well in the Pearl Harbor investigation: "The outpost commander is like a sentinel on duty in the face of the enemy. His fundamental duties are clear and precise.He must assume sthat the enemy will attack at the time and iun the way in which it will be most difficult to defeat him. It is not the duty of the outpost commander to speculate or rely on the possibilities of the enemy attacking some other outpost instead of his own. It isn his duty to meeet him ay his post at any time and to make the best possible fight that can be made against him with the weapons with which he has been supplied." P.H. Attack Part II p. 5428.]




SALAMANDERS in US PetranKA AMBLYSTOMA MOLE SALAMANDERS annulatum barbouri californiense cingulatum p.53 gracile (Baird) northwest salam. plates 6-7 both gilled+ transformed CA-WA-BC an ALBINO near Portland OR jeffersonianum laterale mabeei macrodactylum long-toed subs m. near Olymp maculatum spotted opacum marbled talpoideum mole texanum small-mouthed tigrinum tiger widespread, FL to east of Cascades WA AMPHIUMIDAE means pholeter tridactylum CRYPTOBRANCHIDAE alleganiensis. DICAMPTODON Pacific Giant aterimus Idaho copei (Nussbaum) Cope's plates 32,33 p. 147 rarely metamporphoses slim lacks black tail tip OLYMPICS, SW WA Grays Harbor TENEBROSUS (Baird + Girard) p. 152 pl 35-36-37 Eureka-WA-Vancouver erratus (ESCHSCHOLTZ) LUNGLESS 316 Aneides ferreus OR + VANC +- wa 325 ENSATINA eschscholtzii (Gray) here subsp Oregonensis common. 401,403 PLETHODON vandycki (van Denburgh) plate 140 aquatic to 560 meters local OLYMPICS WILLAPA HILLS p. 403 vehiculum western redbacked pl 141 common widespread often dark back stripe (Cooper)ALBINOS Hensley 1959.439 RHYACOTRITON Olympicus (Gaige)plate 155 Torrent salamander 60 mm. fig 279. small head short tail dark spotted back orange-yellow venter cool shaded streams R. kezei Chehalis Grays Harbor south to Little Nestucca and Grand Ronde Valley Polk-Tillamook-Yamhill counties OR R. cascadae Mt. Adams to Sisters platesd 152,153. p. 445 family SALAMANDRIDAE newts mostly old world except six species. Toxic skin chemicals tetrodotoxin warty skin dimorphic male-female Genus TARICHA species GRANULOSA rough-skinned newt widespread northwest. plates 163-164 12.5- 22 cm adults. CA-OR_WA-BC_AK coastal. larva develops to terretrial juvenile stage, adults go in water to breed, then often back +forth land-water. MOSSESeSphagnum magellanicum papillosum angustifolium girginsohnii warnstoffii fuscum Andreaea reupestris Polytrichum commune juniperinum Pogonatum contortum urnigerum alpinum piplferum stictum Oligotrichum aligerum Atrichum selwyni undulatum Tetraraphis pellucida geniculata Funaria hygrometrica Plachnum luteum rubrum Tayloria lingulata Tetraplodon angustatus Orthotrichum lyallii striatum speciosum laevigatum obtusifolium pellucidum Ulota megalospora Bryum caessssspiticum seudotriquetrum argenteum munitum Pohlia cruda wahlenbergii Philonota fontana nutans longibracteata filum Mielchoferia macrocarpa mielichoferi Leptobryum pyriforme Leucolepis menziesii Climacium dencroides Mnium marginatum arizonicum Plagiomnium cuspidatum medium venustrum insigne Rhizomnium gracile glabrescens nudum magnifolium Arthronia patellulata Calicium viride Staurothele clopina Verrucaria maura Xylographia abietina Graphis scripta Diploschistes scruposus Lecidea tesselata 180 Porpidia flavocaerulescens Tremolecia atrata Hypocenomyces Lecidella cinnabarina euphorea Mycoblastus sanguinarius Lecidea atrobrunnea Trapeliopsis granulosa Rhizocarpon geographicum geminatum Buellia punctata Dimelasna oreina Acarospora chlorophana Sporastatia testudinea Glypholecia scabra Dermatocarpon miniatum Psora decipiens Toninia caerulea nigrescens Squamarina lentigera Fulgensia bracteata Rhizoplaca chrysoleua [= Lecanora] Caloplaca holocarpa Candelariella [VIT?] 191 Coccotrema maritinum Placopsis gelida Ochrolechia laevigata Thelotrema lepidianum Pertusiaria tachylina Icmadoph.. ericetorum Haematomma lap.. Baeomyces rufus Cladinina bacillaria coniocraea Cladinia botrytes 200 carneola deformis cariosa cocciifera chlorophaea fimbriata pocellum pyxidata 209 Cladina 211 Cetraria tilesii chlorophylla Mehanelia stygia Platesmatia Parmelia saxatilis omphalodes Flavopunctelia Ahtiana sphaerosporella Arcoparmelia Xanthop? Hypogymnia Leptogium saturninum Pannaria pezizoides [w Noston] Psoroma hypnorum Solorina crocea saccata Peligera aphthosa venosa Neph?roma Lobaria linita greeni pulmonaria Pseudocyphellaria sticta Phaeophyscia Physconia muscigera Physcia Xanthoria elegans polycarpa fallax Umbillicaraia vellea torrefacta Stereocaulon Pilophorus Sphaerophorus globosus Siphula ceratities Thannolia subutiformis Dactylina arctica Bryocaulon Coelocaulon aculeatum Alectoria ochroleuca usnea sarmentosa 252 Evernia mesomorpha Ramulina Letharia vulpina columbiana


letter to Goldstein & Dillon Feb 11 H-A-W-A-I-I 70=1226


Lettter to Donald m. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon CWO & Prange associates' Friends: My father Commander John Berchmans Barrett 188-1969 was Asssitant War Plans officer Pearl Harbor July 15, 1941 to some date in October `1941, when he was transferred to be Assistant Personnel Officer in charge of Overseas Transportation Office where he reamained until October 1945 handlihg evacuation of many thousands of dependants after Dec. 7 attack. His experience corroborates the conclusions of the Prange group in "At Dawn We Slept" and related books. My father had an extreemly frustrating experinece with Admiral Claude Bloch and his chief of staff Captain J. B. Earle USN. Specifically my father urgently desired to consult the Army War Plans under General Walter Short and was positively forbidden to do so. My mother recollected the lione, "The Admiral Sees the General on the Golf Course." The only possible excuse was the concern about spies and the need for secrecy, but this was used to cover lack of planning. I have read a low=ranking Lieutenant was assigned to Army liaison in November-December 1941, and Admiral Kimmel's intelligence officer Edwin Layton failed to carry out instructions to relay to General Short 's staff information about Japanese dipomats burning codes. My father also was concerned about danger to oil storage particularly at Makalapa,- about concentration of ships so "one bomb could hit two ships" and about carelss personnel policies in regard to leave and wekend duty. My father attended Revenue Cutter School 1909-1911,-worked in Naval Hytdrographic office 1913-1916,- joined D.C. Naval Militia 1915 - was activated as Reserve officer April 1917 went Regular Navy 1921 - on WYOMING 1922-3 had experien e with big guns- knew William d. Puleston, Pedro del Valle, Otto Nimitz.--At Naval War College 1923-4 wrote TACTCICS thesis on Jutland + analysis of functions of ship types =-concentration of force - communications - ideas of horatio Nelson -- participatedd April 1925 in War Games that demonstrated feasibility of air attack on Pearl Harbor and invasion of Oahu - he was at Shanghai 1927 and with my mother sent first report of Mukden aggression Sept 1931- went to sea Dec. 1927 in inadequately equhipped New York harbor tug in effort at rescue of S-4 - then wrote January 1928 letter to New York Post about Naval Preparedness under pen name "XANTHOS" [talking horse that warned Achilles ILIAD book 19]. He had War Plans assignments Ny 1927-9, Boston 1932-3 drilling reservists on Eagle 19-- and P{hiladelphia 1937 .-was Exec of survey ship HANNIBAL 1934-5 Panama Costa Rica -- participated in landing force exercises 1936 Culebra Puerto Rico inn comand of destroyer CLAXTON - then was SOPA Senior officer Present Afloat summer 1936 of five destroyers drilling Annapolis midshipmen at Gardiners Bay NY. '=I would be very grateful if you or any of your asociates could look at website ==Any thoughts on utilization of the material would be appreciated. My mother did a great deal of work,and copied into notebooks much correspodence, the originals of which were stolen 1993. In the past year I have typed over three hundred thousand words of material on the website. Some of it is biographical -= travel, education, family history,but there is a lot of Navy- miitary- maritime material. I have been very busy working to preserve text-- now I am interested in doing further research on the Naval and military history - particularly the careers of my father's friends and shipmates. To outline a few- HANNIBAL 1934-5 Ricahrd Visser commanded destroyer DALY ALeutians-New Guinea-Halmahera -Surigao Strait - then was on Admiral R.K. Turner's planning staff for Iwo Jima-Okinawa. Ascherfeld became engineer of carrier WASP. Dan Candler, Lafayette J. Jones, Woelfel, Ferguson had interesting later career.s CLAXTON 1936 Orlin Livdahl became gunnery officer of ENTERPRISE -got permission from Admiral Nimitz to redesign gun placements to increasef firing angle and save four deck s[aces fpor planes. Warren McClain of 1936 CLAXTON saw four carriers sunk World War II. There are letter from Frank Delahanty Capt Supply Corps who had particular interest in history of Naval War College and was at Culebra ON WYOMING 1936 - ALSO WALTER CALHOUN THEN COMMANDING TAYLOR later Captain of FDR's ship to Pearl Harbor July 1944. There was a letter from Ricahrd C. Hottelet who was on CLAXTON as NROTC trainee. Paukl Rice Capt. of TULSA 1931 live to age 95 and his wif GERTRUDE to age 102 and a half. Other TULSA friends Marine William W. Paca, Dr. Peter Supan. Revenue Cutter School friends Joseph Stika, Joe Farley, Biull Rupertus - Marine general at Tulagi, Peleliu, F. Zeusler, Earl G. Rose, E. M. Webster. Gershom Bradford 1879-1978 of the Hydrographic Office was a friend from 1913 on,. My father marched in Woodrow Wilson secpnd inaugural 1917. At Pearl Harbor 1941-6 my father saw a great deal of Admirals William Furoing, William Calhoun, Robert Ghormley - met Spruance, Halsey arranged transportatiopn for Samuel Wilder King first Hawaiian Annapolis grad and wartime governor American Samoa- marine writer John W. Thomason- celebrities including Gene Tunney, Bill Dickley, Johnny Mize and members of Crosby family. --John b. Barrett, junior Feb 11-12






p 72-1228 moss


eSphagnum magellanicum papillosum angustifolium girginsohnii warnstoffii fuscum Andreaea reupestris Polytrichum commune juniperinum Pogonatum contortum urnigerum alpinum piplferum stictum Oligotrichum aligerum Atrichum selwyni undulatum Tetraraphis pellucida geniculata Funaria hygrometrica Plachnum luteum rubrum Tayloria lingulata Tetraplodon angustatus Orthotrichum lyallii striatum speciosum laevigatum obtusifolium pellucidum Ulota megalospora Bryum caespiticum seudotriquetrum argenteum munitum Pohlia cruda wahlenbergii Philonota fontana nutans longibracteata filum Mielchoferia macrocarpa mielichoferi Leptobryum pyriforme Leucolepis menziesii Climacium dencroides Mnium marginatum arizonicum Plagiomnium cuspidatum medium venustrum insigne Rhizomnium gracile glabrescens nudum magnifolium Arthronia patellulata Calicium viride Staurothele clopina Verrucaria maura Rhizoplaca chrysoleua [= Lecanora] Caloplaca holocarpa Candelariella [VIT?] 191 Coccotrema maritinum Placopsis gelida Ochrolechia laevigata Thelotrema lepidianum Pertusiaria tachylina Icmadoph.. ericetorum Haematomma lap.. Baeomyces rufus Cladinina bacillaria coniocraea Cladinia botrytes 200 carneola deformis cariosa cocciifera chlorophaea fimbriata pocellum pyxidata 209 Cladina 211 Cetraria tilesii chlorophylla Mehanelia stygia Platesmatia Parmelia saxatilis omphalodes Flavopunctelia Ahtiana sphaerosporella Arcoparmelia Xanthop? Hypogymnia Leptogium saturninum Pannaria pezizoides [w Noston] Psoroma hypnorum Solorina crocea saccata Peligera aphthosa venosa Neph?roma Lobaria linita greeni pulmonaria Pseudocyphellaria sticta Phaeophyscia Physconia muscigera Physcia Xanthoria elegans polycarpa fallax Umbillicaraia vellea torrefacta Stereocaulon Pilophorus Sphaerophorus globosus Siphula ceratities Thannolia subutiformis Dactylina arctica Bryocaulon Coelocaulon aculeatum Alectoria ochroleuca usnea sarmentosa 252 Evernia mesomorpha Ramulina Letharia vulpina columbiana


Wegforth letter 21 Nov 1970 to Sophie Barrett H-A-W-A-I-I 1129


from notebook 2 pages 124-5 = La Mesa California 92041 -- 5219 Verna Way -21 Nov. 1970 Fred Wegforth -- Dear Mrs. Barrett, I received both letters and I must apologize for not answering sooner. Jack's letter was still in my awaiting-action basket. Mrs. Wegforth has been out of commission with Parkinson's Tremor for some time, and so much of my time is used up with trips to the doctor or hospital, and taking over so much she did in the past. We both enjoyed your letters, bringing up pleasant memories of the past. = I will give you a rundown of my Seven December [1941] for what it may be worth. On sixth December I was detached as Executive Officer of the TANGIER [seaplane tender]at Ford Island with ten days leave, and then I was to report to the Commandant for transportation to Palmyra Island[s]. as Commanding Officer {C.O.] of the air station [there]. That evening the ship's officers gave me a farewell party at the Officers Club in the navy Yard.The next morning at breakfast the radio was interrupted by a report that Pearl Harbor was under attack by Jap planes. My daughtersaid, "My gosh, - are they pulling another {??Orson - H.G.} Wells {Welles?} on us?" We looked out the window and could see shell bursts in the sky over the Pearl Harbor area. I hurriedly jumped into uniform and dashed out to the Commandant's office.Admiral Bloch was pacing his ramparts, and during a lull I told him I was on leave with orders to report to him -p ii-125- etc.,but under the circumstances, I thought it my duty to report now. He said, "That's fine, young man, - just make yourself as useful as possible. I went over to Ford Island, but the skipper said there was nothing left to fly, so I went down to the dock and helped load stretcher cases from the Battleships.They soon ran out of stretchers, and we ended up using two-by-fours, with canvas nailed between them. Jap planes were still in the air, and as I recall we ducked for cover several times. I returned to the Navy Yard just in time to see the destroyer SHAW blow up in drydock,- again ducking for cover, - this time under a tin roof about eleven-sixteenths inch thick.Still trying to be useful,I wandered along the water front and watched a bomb disposal unit take care of a torpedo bobbing up and down in the water, - which luckily turned out to be a dud. Beginning to feel like a newspaper reporter browsing around,I stepped into the Officers Club just as the OMAHA, tied up along the sea wall,fired her major battery. The blast caused all the bottles, glasses, cigars etc., to bound off the barroom shelves.I then went over to Hickam Field, and the neat rows of engines on the aprons that had dropped from the bombed airplanes were quite a distressing sight. = My orders to Palmyra [Island] were changed. I never got my leave, and I eventually landed up in command of the Naval Air Station [at]Pearl. Two years of that - one year in the Pacific with Halsey in command of a fast carrier, two years in Seattle ...." bottom page 125 of Black Notebook two of Sophie Barrett - survived l993 thefts in photocopy -85 The junction of the British Grand Fleet ers was very different. "An analysis tration between the Bat CF 5;45 to 6;45 resulted. = Jellicoe says: The plt . 5 and 6 pm from Commodore Goodenough .. Sq and the rep? at 4:45 pm.. 85 the rel. positions of two sailing ships, or fleets,with referecne to the direction of the wind involved most inportant tactical Qs was perhaps the chief care of the seamen of that age.--The distinguishing feture of the weather-gage was that it conferred the power oof giving or refusing barttle at will,


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