Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos


Mr. and Mrs. JohnRobert Barrett with daughters Mollie and Kate center and Mrs. Barrett's sister Kate Kernan left and cousin journalist John Lambert right p7-51 {P} {M}
Back yard 640 East Seventh Street South Boston near peach tree- left to right Mrs. Kate Lane Kernan, Mrs. Mary Lane Barrett born New Hampshire l857, Mollie + Kate Barrett, John Robert Barrett Nov. 29-l854-August 21, l942 and journalist John Lambert of Portsmouth Nova Scotia, Media friend of President Calvin Coolide and Lane second cousin many years with Hearst newspapers + Extremely distant galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field Observations of the famous Hubble Deep Fields North and South with the space telescope's WFPC2 and NICMOS IR cameras as well as ground-based telescopes have led to the identification of over 4000 extremely distant galaxies (see Update # 118 - last story - for earlier work by the same group). While spectra of these faint galaxies cannot be taken with current large telescopes, it is possible to guess their redshifts from photometry in just a few color bands quite reliably: Nearly 1000 galaxies in the HDF have redshifts greater than 2, more than 50 have redshifts greater than 5 - and the redshifts of several galaxies even exceed 10! While this is remarkable by itself, it could also revolutionize our understanding of the star formation history of the Universe. Previous analysis of ythe HDF had suggested that star formation reached its peak relatively recently, at roughly half the current age of the Universe. But the new data show no such peak: The activity continues to increase as one looks back farther and farther in time. The early Universe was much more active than believed, with star formation proceeding at more than 100 times the present rate - a challenge for theorists. (SUNY Press Release of Jan. 12th) Illustration for the Press Release (which itself was not found online - sorry). Recent work by Lanzetta & al.: on galaxies of redshift > 5, on the photometric redshift method and on redshifts of faint galaxies in STIS slitless spectra. The SUNY HDF galaxy redshift analysis page with a catalog. Somewhat related news: A new atlas of compact groups of galaxies contains 76 previously unknown cases of these densest galaxy environments known, where the members evolve more rapidly than when isolated: SDSS Release. What slows down stars? 'Magnetic disk-locking' questioned How do young stars get rid of the enormous spin they must acquire when the condense out of their birth cloud? Leading star-formation theories currently use a mechanism called magnetic disk-locking, in which still-forming stars can become magnetically "locked" under certain circumstances to the slowly swirling disks of gas and dust that are frequently found to encircle young stars. The young star's field acts as a sort of leash, tying the star to its disk and braking it down. But an infrared search for such disks around young stars in active stellar nurseries has turned up many without disks - and on the other hand fast rotating young stars were common. This means that another braking mechanism must be invoked: Perhaps stellar winds carry the angular momentum away at one point? (Press Release of Jan. 12th) Press release not found online - here's the publications list of the main author. Somewhat related news: The early stages in the formation of a star cluster, MWC 1080, have been images with Adaptive Optics, revealing 10 times more faint cluster members than known before: IFA Press Release. The fine structure of the ISM in the Galaxy is being surveyed in the radio: Press Release about progress for the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey. "Superbubble" led to formation of a ring of molecular clouds A new analysis of a survey of molecular clouds has now led to the conclusion that the creation of several star forming clouds in our galaxy was triggered by a battery of massive supernova explosions 40 - 50 million years ago: Most of the star forming clouds within a few thousand light years of our sun are expanding away from a central location. This point in space also coincides with a large, 50 million-year-old star cluster in the constellation Perseus - and a series of supernova explosions there seems to have created a "superbubble" of superheated gas in interstellar space that pushed ambient thin gas into a "supershell" of denser, cool gas - which eventually fragmented into dark clouds of star forming gas (i.e. molecular clouds) on the perimeter of the bubble In early stages superbubbles grow rapidly as gas heated by supernovas expands quickly into the galaxy. Our galaxy is a collection of gas, stars and dust, flattened into a thin disk like a CD. The gas in the disk of the galaxy gets thinner as away from the center plane, similar to how the Earth's atmosphere becomes thinner at higher altitudes. As the nearly spherical bubble grows, it expands more quickly where the gas is thinner and balloons out, like the mushroom cloud from a nuclear explosion on Earth. In the middle of the disk the expansion slows considerably as much of the high pressure hot gas expands into the 'cap' of the mushroom. The middle is also where gas is dense enough to provide enough material to the supershell for new cloud formation. The intersection of a supershell and the galactic disk has been dubbed a "super-ring" by scientists and is where the gas is densest - and exactly such a ring was now found in the molecular cloud survey: It has been named the Gould's Belt Super-ring (or GBS), and our Sun is located inside it but close to the edge. Although one can accurately measure the velocity at which the Gould's Belt Super-ring is expanding, one cannot accurately measure the distance of its gas from Earth. Further study is necessary to confirm the new findings, and future missions such as NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will be essential to support the suspicion that this ring of gas is indeed part of a supershell. Colorado Press Release with pictures. Somewhat related news: Two more gigantic "galactic chimneys" (specimens #3 and 4) have been found in our galaxy, where hydrogen gas has been blown out of the plane - behind that phenomenon could be either about 300 very massive stars that exploded over a span of a million years or something even more powerful such as a gamma ray burst: UNM Press Release with pictures. A tremendous "superbubble" breaking out of the galaxy NGC 3079 has been imaged with Hubble's WFPC2 - here the explosion energy is equivalent to up to 2000 supernovae: UNC info (striking pictures and captions). Evidence that many High Velocity Clouds are primordial and building blocks of the Milky Way (one of the two competing scenarios; see Update # 160 story 3 for recent debate) has been amassed by Berkeley astronomers who see many arguments for those HVCs being old material falling onto the Galaxy from intergalactic space - and who have discovered similar hydrogen clouds associated with 10 out of 21 dward spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group: Berkeley Press Release. The next big X-ray satellite: Japan's Astro-E It's the 3rd major X-ray astronomy mission to launch within several months: After NASA's Chandra last July and ESA's XMM (still no decent name...) last December it's now Japan's turn. On February 8th at 1:30 UTC an M-5 rocket will launch the Astro-E satellite (which should get a colorful name after reaching orbit): It will showcase an entirely new technology in X-ray detection that not only will serve as a test bed for future missions but also will earn the distinction of being the coldest known object in space. It is the X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), developed jointly by NASA's GSFC and Japan's ISAS which measures the heat created by individual X-ray photons, as opposed to converting X-rays to electrical charges and then collecting that charge, which is the mechanism in other X-ray detectors. Using this new technique, it is possible to measure the energies of individual X-rays with a precision some 10 times greater than with previous X-ray sensors. To sense the heat of a single photon, however, the XRS detector must be cooled to an extremely low temperature, only 0.06 degrees Kelvin - what makes the XRS detector the coldest object in space. Astro-E is primarily a spectroscopy mission: Along with the XRS are four X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) instruments (for 0.4 - 10 keV) and the Hard X-Ray Detector (HXD, for 10 - 700 keV). The imaging instrument utilizes detectors similar to those flown on ASCA, Astro-E's precursor, yet with twice the collection efficiency at certain X-ray wavelengths. The HXD will extend Astro-E's observation ability into the "hard" or higher-energy X-ray wavelengths with the highest sensitivity ever achieved. Astro-E will attain a near-Earth circular orbit of approximately 550 km. Its payload weighs 1650 kg and measures 6.5 x 5.4 x 2.1 m.
Subject: Barrett family back yard 640 E.Seventh St. South
Year: 1927