Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos

 

88-1359 hockey team 1947-1948 Roxbury Latin School from 1948 Year Book
This 1948 Year Book turned up among materials in storage with Ben Maleson and Bob Godino when John Barrett visited massachusetts november 1999 (R) www.historyoftheuniverse.com/eukaryot.html-- From: "Philip Brown" | Block address To: "John Barrett" Subject: Your comment has been published... Date: Fri, 21 Apr 2000 10:28:13 +0100 Add Addresses Your comment has been published on the History of the Universe web site. Your comment has been given the title Summary of earth history Your comment was: The age of the earth is estimated fairly precisely by uranium half-life a little over 4.6 billion years. In 1950s Elso Barghoorn found bacterial fossils over three billion years old. Molecular evidence suggests that archaeobacteria are quite different from common ones - they include thermophiles occur in extreme envirnoments such as hot deep sea vents and Yellowstone hot springs-- other archaebacetria excrete methane or live in extreme salt environments. Lynn Margulis about 1970 did research to support an old hypothesis that a large host bacterium engulfed smaller eubacteria, which survived in symbiosis leading to mitchrondia and chloroplasts of eukaryotic organisms, which have complex nuclei usually with more than one chromosome and a shield against ultraviolet radiation. Among the earliest eukaryote fossils presently known are red algae resembling the Bangiales order from Canada described by Nick Butterfield and Andrew Knoll. In 1998 Harvard-Canadian earth scientist Paul Hoffman and colleagues published evidence that between 730 and 580 million years ago, ocean surfaces worldwide froze to the equator, but life survived in oases such as near volcanoes, - carbon dioxide accumulated from volcanic action,while photosynthesis was greatly reduced, and warm conditions returned. About 544 million years ago at the Cambrian epoch calcium skeletons appear suddenly in the fossil record, and familiar phyla including arthropods, molluscs, and vertebrates can be recognized. The Burgess shale in Yoho National Park British Columbia has exceptional preservation of soft parts of these Cambrian animals because specimens were buried alive suddenly by turbidity currents. For decades this was the only such site known, but others have been discovered 1990s in China and Greenland. Since the Cambrian there have been five major extinctions. The largest was at the end of the Permian and Paleozoic around 250 million years ago, before the Traissic and Mesozoic - heyday of reptiles and conifers. Other susbtantial extinctions occurred in Ordovician, Upper Devonian [age of fish about 360 milllion years ago] end Triassic [about 225 million years] when mammal-like reptiles lost out to dinosaurs and end Cretacrous-Mesozoic 65 million years ago, when ammonites and dinosaurs and many other groups suddenly became extinct, probably because of a large comet hitting Chicxulub, Yucatan. an iridium layer is important evidence here at the "K-T" boundary. It was sent by John Barrett on 06 Apr 2000 This comment is published on the following page(s) Eukaryotes( http://www.historyoftheuniverse.com/eukaryot.html )----2222- From: "Philip Brown" | Block address To: "John Barrett" Subject: Your comment has been published... Date: Fri, 21 Apr 2000 10:27:28 +0100 Add Addresses Your comment has been published on the History of the Universe web site. Your comment has been given the title First photosynthetic organisms Your comment was: Cyanobacteria were probably not the first photosynthetic organism, as there are very ancient green and purple groups of bacteria, which, however, do not release substantial amounts of oxygen the way cyanobacteria "blue-greens" do. The purple photosynthetic bacterial group are believed by molecular evidence to include the free-living ancestor of mitochondria of higher organisms. The term "blue green algae" is NOT incorrect in a ECOLOGICAL context. Cladistically blue-greens are prokaryotes, but they are included in nearly all major texts on ALGAE, including Bold and Wynne's, and they are a central portion of the ecology and paleobiology of ALGAE. It is not absolutely certain that all early STROMATOLITES were formed by blue-greens, but they resemble those that blue-greens form today in high salt environments such as coastal Australia, where animal disturbance is lowered. Blue-greens were very widespread in the Proterozoic, but they have been crowded from many habitats since the Cambrian epoch around 540 million years ago. Blue-greens have contributed to the oxygen of the atmosphere, though much comes from volcanoes. Between three and 2.1 billion years ago, the oxygen continued to be removed from the atmosphere by chemical reactions that formed major iron ore deposits. About 2.2 or 2.1 billion years ago the oxygen level of the atmosphere increased greatly, and during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic epochs between about 540 and 250 million years ago, oxygen levels were probably much higher than today's twenty per cent of air. This led to great fires in fern forests and may have assisted evfolution of flight in insects, pterodactyls and birds. It was sent by John Barrett on 13 Apr 2000 This comment is published on the following page(s) Blue Green Bacteria( http://www.historyoftheuniverse.com/bluegree.html )
Subject: hockey team Roxbury Latin
Year: 1999