Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos


Bill and Jack Barrett in living room at 52 Emmonsdale Road, West Roxbury, Massachusetts p 8 # 57 {J} {W} {R}


Photo by John junior of "Uncle Bill" Barrett born October 24, l895 visiting his elder half-brother Commander John Berchmans Barrett, USN Retired born August 28, l888. At this time Bill was Secretary of the Metropolian Life Insurance Company and lived at Wakeman Place, Darien Connecticut, commuting to their New York headquarters. His name apppeared on millions of Metropolitan policiies for eleven years l951-l962. He was interested in the historical books of his neighbor Louise Hall Tharp, "Company of Adventurers" on the Hudson Bay Company, "The Peabody Sisters of Salem, and one on Nathaniuel Bowditch "the navigator". His Son William Joel Barrett and wife Sara from Indiana live in Rumson New Jersey and have sons Bill, Brian, Peter and Christopher and one grandchild.


Yosemite Falls (Upper, Middle, Lower) June l947 Jack Barrett photo from Valley p 8 # 58 {Y} {M}


Sophie had previously visited Yosemite Valley in September l930, when the falls were nearly dry. She stayed at the Ahwahnee hotel in Yosemite Valley. In l947 The Barretts had to stay at the Wawona Hotel about twenty-one miles south of the valley near sequoia trees, and the park has become more and more crowded with tourists.The Barretts visited Glacier Point and Happy Isles and Mirror Lake and Mount Waktins and Hetch Hetchy Valley, a once-beautiful "Second Yosemite Valley" on the Tuolumne River in the north part of the park, which was flooded in l9l3 to make a water resevoir for San Francisco. Many environmentalists want to see the dam removed and Hetch Hetchy restored to its original beauty. The Mount Holyoke College art museum has an l880's painting of forests and deer in Hetch Hetchy Valley.On the north side of Yosemite Valley Yosemite Falls descends in three stages totalling one thousand,nine hundred feet.The Upper Falls has a sheer drop of twelve hundred feet.The Sierra Nevada batholith region is hundreds of miles long and fifty to eighty miles wide.The highest point is 14,495 foot Mount Whitney on the east border of Sequoia Park.The Sierra Nevada is continuing to rise- a process that began about twenty-five million years ago.In l833 Joseph Walker crossed the East Sierra escarpment & the uplands between the Tuolumne and Merced rivers and the route that has become the western part of the TIOGA Pass ROAD. His men sawYosemite Valles and the Big Trees.Zonas Leonard kept a journal,which was published in Pennsylvania in l839.Major James Savage and theMariposa militia battalion entered the valley in 1851 and propsed to name it for the Indian tribe that lived there. In l863 the director of the Geoloigcla Survey of California explored the headwaters of the Tuolumne river with William Brewer and Charles Hoffman.Mount Hoffman is a l0,850 foot summit about six miles northeast of Half Dome and the east end of yosemite Valley with a superb panorama view of most of the Yosemite park region.Frederick Law Olmstead early l860's manageda California gold mine and persuaded President Lincoln to transfer the Yosemite Valley "cleft" and Mariposa Big Tree Grove to California for preservation as a state park. An much expanded National Park was created l890.Mollie Barrett is barely visible to right of family Lincoln Zephyr in left foreground.


Joan Rooney visits the Barretts upstairs Apartment 2A 96l5 Shore Road, Brooklyn (Jack Barrett photo) #59 p 8


On the right A carved wooden Chinese chow bench is visible.On living room wall are two photos of Algiers from Jack Barrett's visit December l924 on shakedown cruise of light cruiser MARBLEHEAD then "the fastest ship in the Navy."A Chinese Checker board is visible on rug. Joans family lived on first floor of apartments near Narrows in southwest Brooklyn. We saw her father George in l958 after attending the wedding of Dr. David and Joan Geetter.Joan's mother fixed our lunch the day we left for Hawaii around June 30, l94l. She passed away during World War II, and George Rooney eventually remarried.


Jack Barrett in Philippines second from left while serving on destroyer TRUXTUN #60 p 8


Jack Barrett appears second from left in photo possibly from Zamboanga-Jolo October l929 while in acting command of destroyer TRUXTUN following relief of Captain Carey with tuberculosis. Jack had been married June 21, l929 in New York City but was ordred to 2 l/2 years duty in Asiatic Fleet.+ UV ann. rev'91 Gould belt- Orion-4. RADIATION BETWEEN 912 AND 1216 The portion of the background spectrum shortward of L presents special technical difficulties for its detection as described above. But the region is of particular interest. One interesting possible origin for the diffuse ultraviolet background could be red-shifted hydrogen L recombination radiation from an intergalactic medium or other redshifted sources, which of course will not be observed in the spectral range (blueward of L) that is under present consideration. In Section 3, a claim was made that there exists a diffuse background, from 1750 to 2900 (at least) averaging 400 units. If in the range < 1216 there is no such background, a prima facie case would exist that the longer-wavelength radiation (particularly if it can be shown to continue down from 1750 to 1216 ) is redshifted L. With this in mind we examine the data. While there are other important observations (e.g. 3, 88) the most comprehensive and useful are those made with the ultraviolet spectrometer on the Voyager spacecraft [Figure 12, from the data of Sandel et al (101) and Holberg (42)]. Figure 12. Voyager observations of cosmic background from Holberg (42), (filled symbols), and Sandel et al (10) (open symbols); upper limits are given by the lower edges of the semicircles. The Voyager limit on the background at latitudes above 30 is 100 units. The Voyager spectrometer admits L, so scattered L is a problem. The processing of the data is discussed well by Holberg & Barber (43) and Holberg (41) and references therein, building confidence that the results are reliable. The fact that spectroscopy is involved, rather than simply broad-band photometry, permits some real understanding of the origin of the signal. The results shown in Figure 12 are fundamental. Upper limits are given by the lower edges of the semicircles. Notice that there are no positive detections north or south of b = 20. Looking only at the lowest upper limits we see evidence that above |b| = 30 there is no cosmic diffuse ultraviolet background brighter than 100 units. The notion that there might be a general background of 300 or 400 units at higher latitudes, as appears to exist at longer wavelengths, seems decisively excluded. Thus, a prima facie case exists for the notion that the longer-wavelength ultraviolet background (described in detail below) is due to redshifted L radiation, which, if present, presumably would be from slowly recombining, highly ionized intergalactic clouds. From 912 to 1216 , the Voyager data provide only an upper limit on any background. If the longer-wavelength ultraviolet background radiation is redshifted L, what source might we expect for these shorter wavelengths? One intriguing potential source comes from a recent suggestion by Sciama (103), who proposes neutrinos as the dark matter, decaying with emission of photons that are just capable of ionizing hydrogen. Speculative as it may be, this notion has many attractive properties, including an explanation of the remarkably ionized state of hydrogen in the universe (72, 97, 98). Sciama's photons, if they do exist, would be created short of 912 , and would be seen in the 912-1216 range for sufficient redshift. The work of Stecker (107), Kimble et al (56), Henry & Feldman (36), and Murthy & Henry (80) describes earlier searches for neutrino decay radiation. Results on neutrino decay from supernova 1987A are given by Chupp et al (15) and Kolb & Turner (58). Related discussion appears in Madsen & Epstein (65). If neutrinos have nonzero masses, they may oscillate (e.g. 5). There is the suggestion by Bahcall and Bethe, as reported by Nash (84), that Soviet study of solar neutrinos implies oscillation and hence a nonzero mass. Sciama's photons also help with a problem that is faced by the L recombination origin, suggested above to be the source of the longer-wavelength background. To get adequate intensity requires considerable clumping [although probably not too much to violate an important observational constraint by Martin & Bowyer (66) on the uniformity of the ultraviolet background], and Sciama's photons would prevent cooling-time difficulties that otherwise arise. Of course if Sciama's photons are the ultimate energy source of a background of redshifted L radiation, that would destroy most or all of his photons! Returning to the data in Figure 12, the positive detections below |b| = 17 are important: what is the source of this radiation? One particular observation, the 2000 unit observation in Ophiuchus at b = -16.3, is especially valuable, as it involves a long, slow, spatial scan, over all of which the flux is seen (42). Thus we have decisive evidence for a truly diffuse origin. Holberg analyzes the spectral appearance of this source, concluding that this background ultimately arises from stellar sources of early spectral type. I assume, therefore, that what we are seeing is 2000 units of diffuse cosmic ultraviolet background radiation arising from the light of OB stars scattering from interstellar dust. The location on the sky is near one end of the ``bright half'' of the Gould belt shown in Figure 7. The other six positive detections in Figure 12 all occur near Orion, that is, at the other end of the bright part of the Gould belt; also, none of the upper limits is at a location near the bright half of the Gould belt. Additional observations at other locations along the bright half of the belt would be of great value. So we have a compelling case for the detection of some diffuse ultraviolet background radiation that surely has its origin in the light of OB stars scattering from interstellar dust. That makes even more interesting the fact that such radiation is not seen by Voyager at moderate or high galactic latitudes (Figure 12) (and also, notice, it is not seen at two low-galactic latitude locations that are in the ``dim half'' of the Gould belt.) Why is no such radiation seen? There is certainly dust at many locations at high galactic latitudes, from IRAS observations, and from interstellar polarization studies. A natural answer is that the grains strongly forward-scatter the radiation out of the galaxy. This would require that the sources of the positive detections in Figure 12 be behind the scattering dust, which is of course possible. In ending this section which has been positive in its discussion of the Voyager data it is important, however, to point out some of the difficulties encountered with them. In the analysis of a data sample (Section 2) we discussed a variety of contaminants - airglow, stars, and dark current - that may create a false diffuse ultraviolet background. The contrary can not occur: a spectrophotometric system, if it has demonstrated inflight the correctness of its calibration, can hardly fail to detect a true diffuse background if it is there. Therefore, when two diffuse background experiments that have been pointed at the same celestial location disagree, the burden of proof lies, of course, with the experiment that claims the higher background. In this light, consider again the Voyager results. In his Ophiuchus scan, Holberg provides convincing proof that his signal is truly diffuse background. But such a proof is absent for the ``fixed-location'' positive detections in the Orion region by Sandel et al (101). In particular, there exists the possibility that what is being detected is not diffuse background radiation but direct radiation from a star, or stars, in the field of view. The Voyager (lowest) upper limits correspond to permitting one unreddened B0 star of magnitude 15.5 to be in the field of view (43). A false background of 3000 units would therefore require an unrecognized unreddened 11.8 magnitude B0 star (or several somewhat reddened such stars) to be in the field of view. Why should that occur in Orion, and not elsewhere? For the very same reason that the claims of a diffuse background in that region of sky must be seriously entertained: that is where exceptionally large numbers of hot stars are located (Figure 7). We turn next to the important spectral region, 1216 to 1800 , where many conflicting observations exist.


Sophie and Jack Barrett 2415 Ala Wai Boulevard with d'Aubert pets #61 p 8


Jack is wearing khaki uniform. PHOTO BY JOHN JUNIOR. DOG WICKIE AND CAT SAMURAI BELONGED TO NEIGHBORS MR. AND MRS. D'AUBERT (NANCY) of 2411 B Ala Wai Boulevard. Behind ornamnetal panax hedge lived Mr. and Mrs. James Needles, our neighbors for six years at 2421 Ala Wai.They had a spitz terrier "Teddy". In the early part of the war we used their bomb shelter, as they had a deep yard. They grew carrots and other vegetables in a victory garden on top of the bomb shelt, where we went in strict black out several times spring l942.Mr. Needles was a Morom andEdythe born in Wales a Christian Scientist. After the war they held Hawaiiian sty;e outdoor luaus.One of their tenants Margaret Gage Bronson was a l935 Mount Holyoke college graduate from Marlboro Massachusetts, married to an entomologist Harry Bronson.


Sophie Barrett near popular cave Shangtung peninsula near Chefoo, CHINAchapter #62 p 8


Along with her friends Gertrude and Nathalie Rice and Rachel Doughtie - of the very few women family members with gunboat TULSA officers, Sophie traveled south spring l931 on a British freighter when the TULSA went to Asiaitic fleet gunnery and annual fleet exercises.Sophie nearly was stranded in Wehai-Wei after a shopping expedition. She had a pleasant picnic with Gertrude and Paul Rice near Chefoo and visited a popular cave near this photo.She stayed at Wineglass Boarding house, arranged by Chaplain Wiilliam Maguire, later famous for heroism at Pearl Harbor December 7, l941.When Jack helped Fleet Chaplain Maguire with transportation needs of Navy families,he said it was "bread on the water", as Chaplain Maguire had helped Sophie at Chefoo l93l. At Shanghai Sophie met Maimie and Mickey Ashley, Cockeye the Naval Tailor, Ah. Sing Ships' Chandler and other friends of Jacks.She bought Wei-hai-wei pottery-pewter tea set on trip.Letter Sophie BLACK notebook #4 p.nineteen: "5 July 1970 from Martin R. Stone, Rear Admiral USN Retired 1140 Keyes Avenue Winter Park Floria 32789--Dear Mrs. Barrett,I am sorry to hear that your husband has passed on.Yes, I am the Martin Stone who served on the TULSA, but most of my time aboard was under Walter B. Decker as Captain and before your husband came aboard.I do remember him, but if my memory serves me right, he relieved me as First Lieutenant when he reported on board,and I don't remember him as gunnery officer although as you say many years have passed and perhaps I am in error [Sophie Barrett note When SMB Sophie Meranski Barrett joined Jack -JBB- he WAS Gunnery officer of the TULSA, November 1930}. [John Barrett note -Jack's assignment changed several times - he was First Lieutenant, acting Executive Officer until Leonard Doughty reported, and later Gunnery Officer].I am glad to hear that some of the old shipmates are still alive, such as [Dr] Supan and [Col.William] Paca.I have seen Gordon Hall in the intervening years but don't know where he is now.I am afraid there isn't much I can offer regarding my contacts with Jack except that I do remember he suffered pain in the facial area-probably sinusitis.I suppose the weather in northern China had something to do with it.The great majority of my service has been in the Pacific and Far East.The outbreak of World War II caught me in Tokyo as Assistant Naval Attache,- and I returned in the first exchange on the GRIPSHOLM.The rest of the war I was in the Southwest Pacific.Again [I was] in the Far East during the Korean War.I retired in 1955 and have been living in Winter Park ever since.Nice place. It was nice to hear from you, and I wish you success in your project. Best regards. Martin Stone." + "Just before [our] departure Captain and Mrs. Rice asked us if we would spend one night at their home to look after Nathalie while they spent the evening and night in Peking. So we spent the night with Nathalie, and the next morning at breakfast the number one 'boy' [they were adults - this was the term used] inquired of Jack, "Master wantchee eyogg?" Jack had no idea what he was asking about, so the 'boy' repeated this question several times. Finally young Nathalie explained that her father always had two EGGS for breakfast, and the 'boy' was merely inquiring whether Jack wanted eggs for breakfast. He pronounced 'egg' like 'IGG' the "i" being long as it is in "Ike". Jack wanted no part of Chinese eggs, which were always too old for anything but scrambled eggs. Jack liked to tell a [related] story about a man who ordered FRIED eggs in China. The servant said, "Fly - no can do -- scramble - maybe can."


Edithe and Jame Needles 2421 Ala Wai Boulevard,Waikiki #63 p 8


Mr. and Mrs. Needles were our neighbors nearly six years July 28, l941 to June 4, l947. She helped our landlord Walter Glockner furnish our house at 2415 Ala Wai.In l941 she gave us several small toy Christmas ornaments, including a cloth Santa Claus with a big walnut in his sack, and anothert with a plastic sleigh and reindeer and toy Christmas trees.She also gave use a very remarkable Santa Claus electric light with Japanese features made in Japan with Japanese feautres, probably for Japanese or Hawaii-Japanese Christians. It was about nine inches high, mainly decorated red, with much detail of face and clothing, and it continued to light until it was given in l993 to neighbor Mrs. Florence Hallahan of Celia Road,West Roxbury for safety because of thefts of Barrett materials at Emmonsdale Road.Mrs. Needles worked in real estate, and her husband was an engineer with a daughter by a previous marriage.On the morning of the Pearl Harbor attack, Mr. Needles rapped on our side window and told my father that th3e Japanese had bombed Pearl Harbor and that all naval personnel were to report to duty stations. That was the first news we had of the opening of the war.


Neptune party light cruiser MARBLEHEAD crossing equator July 6, l925 #64 p 8


MARBLEHEAD first crossed equator July 6, l925 en route to Samoa, Melbourne and Hobart, Austalia and Wellington-Napier, New Zealand. On later reurn via Samoa, Tahiti, MARBLEHEAD made many equator crossings aroundSeptember 5-7 while investigating good landing sites for navy ships in Galapagos Islands