Red Headed Stepchild
(The Barrett family memoir of Navy Life)
by Sophie Ruth Meranski with photos

 

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Photos of young fans at Forks high basketball and Rod Enos photo . Article on John Dahlgren is continued from web page 93 photo #1408 SEPARATE ITEM - SCIENCE- FUTURE OF SUN--- FUTURE OF SUN--- Survival of Solar System Life long-term Can Future Scientists Prolong Survival of Life in the Solar System by Removing Helium from the Sun to Reduce total Mass and Delay Eventual Over-heating Billions of Years? by John B. Barrett junior address now 113 W. Third St. Port Angeles WA 98362-2824. In l972 Astonomer Carl Sagan published the "dim early sun" hypothesis to the effect that the sun- now about 4.6 billion years old- was cooler when it first reached the stellar Main Sequence than it is today.I asked astrophysicist Hans Bethe his opinion when he gave a historical talk at Harvard spring l995 - he supports this model.If the sun was a few per cent heavier at first and somehow lost mass, it would have been hotter, but such mass loss appears rare among normal Main Sequence stars, and Bethe suggests the fossil record of the earth's climate is supportive.Reporting work begun in Pennsylvania, Ken Caldeira and James Kasting in l992 published in "Nature" and elsewhere calculations suggesting l. that carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases of a thick atmosphere played a central role in keeping the early earth warm enough so that the oceans never have frozen solid, and life has had an uninterrupted history for 3.5 billion years. -2- Carbon dioxide levels have dropped substantially in the past 75-100 million years as the sun very gradually grows warmer, and atmospheric carbon dioxide is fixed chemically to abundant silicate rocks,which extract carbon dioxide gas from the atnosphere. Volcanism 120 million years ago released a great deal of carbon dioxide and oxygen, but in the last30 million years the rise of the Himalayas and other high mountains has exposed more silicate rocks, and now carbon dioxide is well below one half of one per cent of the atmosphere -3- When atmosphere temperature gets around 120 degrees F. (50 C. ) there will not be enough carbon dioxide for ordinary C3 photosynthesis but -4- The C4 KRANZ-anatomy grasses have become abundant in the last fourteen million years and can continue photosynthesis in atmospheres as low as ten parts carbon dioxide per million - so corn, sugar, millet, andropogon and sorghum may be able to survive perhaps a billion years. My proposal is to look for ways to slow the overheating of the sun by finding a way to extract Helium and reduce the sun's total mass. Smaller stars last billions of years longer than large ones - the hotter the star, the shorter its life. Speaking at Harvard recently, James Kasting estimated the sun becomes ten per cent hotter every billion years. A third recent speaker here was Egil Leer, astrophysicist at University of Oslo - he talked on "Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration." In response to my question, he estiimated only about one millionth of the sun's total energy is carried away by the solar wind, and only one hundred-trillionth of the sun's mass is expelled in a year. The sun is now about 71% hydrogen and 27% helium. A little helium is lost in the solar wind but not much. In a telephone conversation ProfessorDavid Latham astronomer at Harvard points out that larger stars have their mass organized in shells, and the nuclear reactions take place under extreme gravitional pressures in a small central region.Bethe calculated in the l930's that the central temperature of the sun is around ffteen million degrees Celsius.No presently known technology exists for humans to influence the evolution of the sun,but future technologies might yield ways of using magnetism, lasers or possibly technologies undreamed of today. Nanotube materials might be useful. If helium could be removed from the surface of the sun, it would take millions of years for the reduction of helium to redistribute four hundred thousand miles down to the core. The surface temperature of the sun's chromosphere SURFACE is around 5500 degrees C. though slightly cooler temperatures occur in the magnetic disturbances we call sunspots. Archimedes said (in Greek) Give me a place to stand, and I will move the universe."ANONYMOUS said, "The very difficult we do right away. The impossible takes some time."This is not an easy problem, but I believe it is time for diverse scientific specialists to look at the possibility for some sort of solar surgery to extend the life of the OVERWEIGHT future Sun.David Latham says it "might be easier to move the people" - first stop would be Mars, but it is smaller than the earth, and humans quite likely could use fusion power to create atmospheres and air-condition satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. How many centuries will it be before space colonization offers serious relief to overcrowding on earth? I believe fusion research should get high priority to save the earth's environments - reduce danger of plutonium - and fusion power is indispensable for space colonization.Solar studies need priority the sun affect the weather and the ionosphere - Dr.Baliunas at Harvard is looking at solar cycles that could affect climate next century.Helioseismology, the ecliptic, studies of eclipses, orbiting telescopes , X-ray Ultraviolet UV, infrared, spectroscopy all are adding to our knowledge of the sun. In the mid-twentieth century cheerful projections suggested the sun might stay on the Main Sequence another five billion yeasrs. The recent studies suggest that if we avoid asteroids, nuclear wars, and virus pandemics, overheating of the atmosphere could probably stop most plant life in one hundred million years and even specialized grasses in a billion years.Those who value life in the solar system and universe should think of ways to extend the useful life of the sun - the greatest engineering challenge humanity probably will ever face. [second essay:]Future of Life on Earth Researchers at Pennsylvinia State University in l992 published information on the likely future duration of life on earth.Leaders were Ken Caldeira recently at Livermore California, and James Kasting who has remained at Penn State, lectured at Harvard, and had discussions with astronomers. These researchers suggest the sun is gowing gradually warmer, perhaps ten per cent every billion years. In the last hundred thousand years, carbon dioxide fixation by silicate rock has significantly lowered atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, causing cooler, drier climates and favoring the emergence of grasses with specialized kranz leaf anatomy and the ability to continue photosynthesis at amosphere willl carbon dioxide concentrations down to ten parts per million.They suggest ordinary C3 photosynthesis would cease in one hundred thousand years at earth temperatures rise to arounmd fifty Celsius or 120 degrees Fahrenheit.Grass C4 synthesis might continue around a billion years.Whether this scenario is precise or not, the evidence indicates the sun will eventually overheat. Can future scientists prolong the survival of life on earth? One possiblity is that humans will colonize first Mars, then satellites of Jupiter and Saturn and eventually vast reaches of space.This might permit colonies to be perpetuated, but the majority of humans and earth species would likely perish. With large scale fusion energy, it might be possible to accelerate the earth's revolution around the sun and move its orbit further from the sun--hopefully in a controlled and calculated manner to achieve optimum warmth.The best solution would be to slow the overheating of the sun by removing a portion of the sun's mass, but obstacles are extremely formidable. The escape velocity of matter at the sun's surface is extremely high. It would be useful to have calculations how close to the sun a space ship could orbit without being captured. A critical question would be whether materials can be manufactured that would withstand temperatures at or near the sun's surface. I do not have complete information but believe carbon and tungsten are among the elements that remain solid at highest temperatures on the order of 2000-3000 degrees C., Carbon gradually turns to vapor without a liquid phase. One helpful research line to investigate would be whether special alloys or ceramic or nanotube materials perhaps formed under high pressure could withstand higher temperatures perhaps not forever but long enough so that machinery could operate in near-sun orbits or conceivably in vicinity of sunspots, which are magnetic storms that are somewhat cooler than the general surace of sun perhaps around 5000 degrees Celsius.The properties of a star depend crucially on its total mass. The smallest main sequence stars have a mass eight per cent of that of the sun and are expected to remain on the Herzsprung-Russell Main Sequence around ten trillion years - a thousand times the estimated life expectancy of the sun.These are the smallest fusion-powered stars, as smaller "brown dwarfs" do not achieve sustainable hydrogen fusion temperature.The sun loses a small amount of mass every years through the solar wind, and some other stars with rapid rotation or other peculiarities may eject mass.Technologies to make the sun lose mass are not easy to think of,even in a conjectural theoretical way, but lasers, strong magnetic fields come to mind, or future technologies that may develop as quantum theory and physics are extended in the future.I urge astronomers, physicists, engineers to think if there would be any way to draw matter out of the sun and extend its stable life.Materials specialists might think if there is any way to design structural materials that could survive temperatures of three to six thousand degrees at least long enough for space ships to operate.- JohnB. Barrett 113 W. Third St. Port Angeles WA 98362-2824---High Blood Pressure-Tax Salt in Processed Foods TAX SALT in Processed Foods -High blood pressure kills millions of Americans, especially the elderly and disproportionate numbers of blacks and poor persons who cannot afford unlimited supplies of dairy products and fresh fruits and vegetables. A great many people are salt-sensitive and can control high blood pressure and kidney problems by reducing salt intake. Salt-free canned goods are scarce and expensive. A tax on salt in processed foods would create an incentive for corporations in the food industry to act responsibly in the public interest, as they have for decades failed to do. Medication in many cases would be unnecessary if individuals watch weight and salt intake and get fresh fruits and vegetables. Institutional persons have a particular problem, including residents in nursing homes and hosptials, as well as students, prisoners, and members of the Armed Forces, and those who eat in restaurants, especially fast food establishments. The Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health and Public Health Service and Department of Agriculture sshould get necessary directives and resources to help reduce high blood pressure, stroke, heart attack, and kidney problems. The President should lend his personal support to the effort. Help poor, blacks and elderly- Consider a tax on salt in processed foods-


 

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Click on picture to read Forks Forum news story Feb. 2000 : Tue, 11 May 1999 15:59:24 +0000 From: "Nathalie R. Hawley" Subject: Thanks for the Material Dear John. Thanks for all the history you have sent lately. I can see you have been busy! Hoping this finds you well. All is well here. Vern is out puttingin his vegetable garden today--we are having a late spring. One of our grandsons is graduating from Highschool soon and is going to go to UC Santa Cruz in the fall. Makes us feel old! Iam bracing myself for my 80th in June and we are going to Yosemite to celebrate with Verns sister and husband. Spring and the water falls are so beautiful there. Keep in touch, Nath -- Psoas Muscle Lengthening Iliopsoas The hip joint has two main parts. The ball and the socket. The ball rotates within the pelvic hip socket. The ball of the hip is also called the "head" or cap of the femur (femur = thigh bone). The head of the femur is supported by the angled "neck" which joins to the long vertical body of the femur (thigh bone). At the base of the femoral neck is a boney protrusion. There are two very large muscles which converge into a single attachment to this protrusion. The iliacus muscle (which covers the pelvic bone on the inside surface of the pelvis) and the psoas muscle (which embraces the side of the lumbar spine), both attach as if they were one muscle with a common tendon onto that protruberance at the base of the femoral neck. These muscles do two things: 1) if the leg is allowed to move, the hip is flexed and the leg is raised or swung forward. 2) or if the legs are stabilized, the body sits up from lying down or stays upright. These muscles are needed for both walking and sitting.--- Hi John, thanks very much for the references. I recognize Sigurdsson's name as one of the leading researchers of the Vesuvius eruption that buried Pompeii -- great to know that he's compiled a more general book. I studied some geophysics at Princeton, but it's been "just a hobby" since then -- including some visits and detailed correspondence with the Italian experts in Rome and Sicily. On the website, I'll be posting a few maps summarizing Italian seismic risk -- a draft version is on http://patruno.home.att.net/1908extras/risks.html if you're interested. (The Patruno side of the family is from Bari, where the only natural disaster story was of a young cousin killed in a Mediterranean shark attack.) You're right, there were many popular "panorama" photos of Messina after the earthquake. Attached are two rough scans: one panoramic view from the hills, and one from the sea. It's dismaying to think they're planning to build the world's longest suspension bridge at Messina, right across this deadly continental fault zone. Hopefully it's just the idle promise of electioneering politicians, and they'll never actually build the thing... Very interesting to see that you've studied some paleobiology, too. This became another interest of mine when I found out how many museum-quality fossils and artifacts are available for sale over the internet. In fact, I'm working to complete my own "history of the universe" collection, including an explanatory website for it as well. It's still in its early stages, but you can see the spirit of it at http://patruno.home.att.net/museum/ -- as it comes together, I think you might enjoy it. Best regards, Gregg


 

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Forks players including Kurt Olson and Andrew Lamance life coach Scott Justus to cut down souvenir baskball net at Forks High gymnasium after vitor against Elma in final game of seaon, when they won South West Washington championship for schools in their size class [II]. Feb. 2000----- HAWAII i--On Sunday morning December 7,l94l I got up early hoping to go for a swim before breakfast.My next door neighbor Mr. James Needles (a Mormon with a wife Edythe a Christian Scientist from Wales) knocked on the window & told me Jack should proceed at once to Pearl Harbor as the Japanese had bombed the ships,& all service personnel were required to report to duty stations.Mr. Needles told me the bombing was at its height.An Army wife at #24ll Ala Wai Mrs. Means had a miscarriage that morning.A little later Gertrude Rice drove up in a private car.She lived near the Army Fort DeRussy.She said she was going to "the hills"&asked John & me to go with her.I refused, telling her Jack had gone to Pearl Harbor & wouldn't know where to find me if he came home safely.Then an Army jeep appeared,& the driver told me to stay in the house,not use the telephone, boil all water,& observe a six o'clock curfew & complete blackout as soon as darkness fell.Around dark Jack appeared in full white uniform with sword,gun & gunbelt with ammunition.Tears filled his eyes as he told me that professionally,as he had feared, the Japanese had done a superb job,crippling our battleships,killing our men,& destroying planes at Ford Island, & Army planes at Hickam Field & other installations.Jack repeated the fact that he had been "shut up" by the brass when he harped on the likelihood of just such an attack & the need for better Army-Navy cooperation.Driving to Pearl Harbor that morning Jack had to pass hot ashes where someone had been killed shortly before (possibly by antiaircraft "friendly" fire from American ships.)While I served his supper in complete darkness, he told me the ARIZONA was sunk with great loss of life- the OKLAHOMA was capsized- the WEST VIRGINIA & CALIFORNIA were hit & damaged-the NEVADA got under way but later met difficulties- the PENNSYLVANIA was hit in dry dock & badly damaged.. He became silent when neighbors came in, but they soon had to observe the curfew & go home.At curfew we put two cots together in our back bedroom & had John sleep with us there in the "Crack" between the cots.Jack went to bed when John did saying he would have the emergency duty at Pearl Harbor the next few nights & might get little sleep.About midnight I was startled when the telephone rang.I heard Captain Rice anxiously ask me if I knew where Gertrude was. I answered ,"Yes, she went to the hills."Of course he asked me what hill & to whose house she went,but I had no more information.He gallantly told me I had helped him & he would telephone everyone he knew who lived on a hill - Oahu was full of them-Round Top, Saint Louis Heights,Wilhelmina Rise, Pacific Heights.At dawn December 8 Captain Rice appeared, grey & unshaven,with Gertrude safely in tow.Since he would have duty for some nights to come,we arranged to have Gertrude occupy John's usual cot in the front bedroom = she would arrive just before blackout & leave before breakfast every morning.Jack left after breakfast Monday December 8 & I picked up a broom to sweep the living room while John was reading one of the Christmas books we bought the previous Saturday at Liberty House.There was a ring at the door & two men entered in civilian clothes.When one flashed an FBI badge,I almost passed out.He asked,"Does Walter Glockner live here?"Walter Glockner was my landlord who lived upstairs & had just returned with a large load of groceries.They went upstairs & took him off in their car,& I never saw him again until after the war.He was interned on Sand Island in Honolulu Harbor - the Hawaiian territory civilian courts held military governor Richardson in contempt of court for disregarding a writ of habeas corpus-the fine of five thousand dollars was never paid as President Roosevelt pardoned the governor- but Mr. Glockner agreed to spend the rest of the war years in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he wrote us frequently. He worked there as a brewer, returned in l945, swam every day at Waikiki Beach, & offered to give blood when I had surgery in May l947 before leaving Hawaii.We soon were outfitted with gas masks & required to carry them at all times.We also were finger printed,had our blood typed (mine was probably done wrong-my metal dogtag said "type O",but years later I found out I was type B.) We were vaccinated & given tetanus toxoid & typhoid shots.We had to turn in our money & receive bills marked,"Hawaii."Even five-year old John was fitted to a special smaller gas mask made at Pearl Harbor & had to carry it everywhere.We were no longer allowed our daily swim at Waikiki as the Army strung miles of thick barbed wire fence all along the beach with no entrance gates.Jack worked seven days a week & some nights without any holidays off-neither Christmas,New Year's Thanksgiving or any other day from the first day of the war through the last.We could no longer walk along the banks of the Ala Wai Canal for exercise,as the Army strung barbed wire the entire length.Barbed wire was strung in downtown Honolulu near the Academy of Arts on Beretania Street,where one rainy day my irreplaceable big black umbrella was caught by the wind,& a large hole ripped in it.I really believe that my umbrella was the only thing the Army caught in all those miles of barbed wire.I thenceforth got properly soaked in Honolulu's "liquid sunshine" as I walked a great deal.Jack became friendly with Riley Allen,editor of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin-Riley invited Jack to meet his friends & reporters one Sunday afternoon at their home on a steep hill.Several Sundays later Mr.& Mrs. Allen invited the three of us to have dinner with them at the Honolulu Country Club.Since Jack had to work,we met at 5:30 in the lounge,& Riley hurried us to the dinner table as the waiters & waitresses were all "enemy aliens" according to martial law.& had to be in their own homes by six PM.Young John refused to eat,on the grounds that he had not washed his hands.I tried to persuade him he could just use the knife & fork,but without being cross the childless editor calmly took the boy to the washroom, & they returned happily to eat their meal in lovely surroundings.They were neighbors of our friend Dr.Paul Withington and his ward Rose, whom he later married- Irish,Chinese, & Hawaiian. (In l990 she took John junior to visit the Administration Building where Jack worked & the site of their former home near Round Top & to lunch at the Honolulu Yacht club in which Paul was long active). After December 7 Jack's office was a very busy thoroughfare where requests poured in from the hospitals for evacuation of those wounded who could be moved,for the evacuation of outside non-residents caught in Hawaii on the day of the attack,evacuation of Navy & Army dependents & evacuation of some local civilians whose idea was to get out of there to the mainland. Jack's office had the tremendous job of sending Navy & Army personnel with orders to the forward areas of the war or to the mainland for reassignment.The lines of applicants were never ending.He had several very able assistants. Matson p.86 Navigation Company or from Castle & Cooke & worked as a Lieutenant as assistant to Jack.His knowledge of ships and of Hawaii was invaluable.From l943-5 Jack also had a young Lieutenant Martin Williams from Kentucky.In charge of the clerical force was a Chinese-American Wilfred Pang-Jack's right-hand man who relieved him of a great deal of the routine work.Secretaries Violet Ho & Blossom .. were under Pang's direction. Also there was a Marine officer present to take care of transportation requirements for the Marines.In addition to his office in the Pearl Harbor Administration Building,Jack had a downtown office for the convenience of women & children,as the rationing of gasoline & the crowded buses made it difficult for them to go to the Pearl Harbor office.The downtown office reduced the crush at the Pearl Harbor office PANG letter from Sophie Barrett l=notebook #4:"WILFRED S. PANG Executive Secretary State of Hawaii (John A.Burns governor)Department of Social Services -Criminal Injuries Compensation Commission-l390 MillerStreet-PO Box 339 Honolulu Hawaii 96809 August l4,l970 Dear Mrs.Barrett,This will acknowledge receipt of your nice letter of June 28th,which was forwarded to me recently. I am no longer with Matson Navigation Company-I left Matson in l966 & am now employed by the State of Hawaii.I saw an item in the local newspaper when Commander Barrett passed away.I am very glad you & John are preparing a family memoir of your experience.I went to work for the United States Navy in December l94l.However,I was not assigned to Overseas Transportation Office until April or May l942.Actually I was loaned to the Navy by my employer at the time,Castle & Cooke Inc.(General Shipping Agent).The Overseas Transportation Office handled surface transportation for the Fourteenth Naval District (Pearl Harbor).It was our responsibility to get personnel to their ship or station (command).In addition,we arranged transportation for dependents of naval personnel.Much of the work was of highly confidential nature.I was sort of an administrative assistant or right hand man to Commander Barrett.I coordinated activities & supervised the work of several persons-Robert Choy,who is employed by Castle & Cooke Inc, Violet Ho,& Blossom Anyong.Besides my office in Pearl Harbor, I also maintained an office in the Castle & Cooke building in downtown Honolulu. Lieutenant James Murray l94l-2 & Lieutenant Martin Williams l943-5 were assigned to the office also. I reported directly to Commander Barrett.The Commander demanded the best in a person.Because of my background & experience he entrusted me with most of the detailed work.We worked very closely & got along extremely well.I enjoyed working with him & had the deepest respect & admiration for the man.He talked to me about John often.I left Pearl Harbor shortly after thee end of World War II September l0,l945 to return to my civilian job at Castle & Cooke,Inc.My responsibility was to help reorganize the Passenger Department.In l947 I was transferred to Matson lines. I worked in the Booking or Reservations Division until l960,when I was promoted to Sales Representative.In this capacity I worked closely with airlines & travel agencies.In September l966 I joined the Mid-Pacific Insurance Agency,Limited, as an account executive.I resigned in May l968 when I was offered a job with the State Government.I am the Executive-Secretary-Administrator for the Criminal Injuries Compensation Commission,State of Hawaii.I manage the statewide program which aids victims of a criminal act.There are only six states with this type of legislation.The other states are California,New York,Maryland,Massachusetts & Nevada.I have an Investigator & a Secretary working for me,& I enjoy my work very much.Also the pay & benefits are good.Ever since l960 I have become deeply involved in community service activities.In l964 I was appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve as a Commissioner on the Commission on Children & Youth.The Commission is advisory to the Governor & the State Legislature with respect to any & all problems affecting children & youth in the state of Hawaii.I worked as Chairman of the Commission from l965-l969.I am now serving my seventh year as a commissioner.Under the statute the statutory maximum is eight years.Because of my interest & concern for children I have been asked to serve on many boards of private & public agencies.Among them are: Member,commission on Children & Youth,state of Hawaii=-Member of Board of Trustees,Palsina Settlement-Past President Honolulu Theatre for Youth -Past President Hawaii Eye Bank -Vice President & Director Waikiki Lions Club Vice President & director Big Brothers of Hawaii, Inc. Member of Task Force on Juvenile Delinquency- Law Enforcement Planning Agency, state of Hawaii -Director Hale Kipa Inc. (runaway shelter for girls- chairman of board Services to Girls) Blind Advisory Board. In addition I am an active big brother & spend weekends with two fifteen year old boys (twins).They are fatherless & live in low housing area.I also devote considerable time to the Lions organization. As past president of the Hawaii Lions Eye Foundation & the Hawaii Eye Bank I am deeply involved with programs for the visually handicapped.Some of my activities are glaucoma clinics,used eyeglass project,pre school vision screening program,eye bank, diabetes treatment center. I was awarded the LIBERTY BELL Award for the State of Hawaii in Conference on citizenship held in Washington DC in September.As a member of the YMCA I see Robert Choy occasionally.I have not seen Violet Ho or Blossom Anyong since I left Pearl Harbor in l945.Kindest personal regards to you & John.WILFRED S. PANG" Letter from Captain Harold F. FULTZ USN Retired July 29,l970:"8 Ridley Court,Glen Ridge,New Jersey 07028 Dear Sophie,Any people of any color who really mean business I am willing to help.I tutor black kids (age l4 to 40)-& it requires real study at age eighty-one.I am free for a week or two now & want to answer your two letters,which were quite nostalgic.I remember MARBLEHEAD Captain Miller well- I was later his Executive Officer at the U.S. Navy Ammunition Depot, Hingham, Massachusetts- and Alex Sharp (MARBLEHEAD "exec") was well known & greatly looked up to. The MARBLEHEAD was a relatively new ship,& a fine one.I was assistant engineer officer & later went to the cruiser OMAHA as Engineer Officer,where I remained over the usual tour of duty to repair her after her serious grounding on Castle Island in July l938.We eventually put her through a highly successful full power test & restored her in time for her to serve valiantly in the war.The MARBLEHEAD had a good baseball team largely because of an officer named"Shorty" Milner,who was almost major league stuff.Bumphrey was a supervisor at the Standard Oil Compound, Shanghai,& a good friend to us all.He introduced us to the Ashleys.If you look up Jack's civil war uncle in Somerville, New Jersey,come insured. It's notorious for auto deaths.I was Executive Officer of Republic-the big transport.We evacuated civilians from Honolulu.Some of the kids we evacuated had never worn shoes or even wanted to.One of my duties aboard was to play the piano in the large theatre space to quiet passenger nerves.Our warning to mothers that in event any child got overboard we would not stop was not exactly a happy prospect.Your husband,who was always able to see the real root of things,would have been amazed at the navigational problems of a hospital ship in wartime.Except in rare places all navigational coastal lights were extinguished,& we had to "grasp at a straw" to get around,because we were on the move day & night. Without forest fires, the moon &lightning we would often have been in difficulty.Off New Guinea is a passage known as the Tufi Leads (Leads means Range).A dozen times I ran it at night following very excellent range lights,which were never extinguished during the war.Finally I ran it in daylight & saw the angry,jutting rocks-& I've had a slight shake in my knees ever since,thinking of the disaster had I not followed exactly those lights.A range is a line to keep you on course by lining up two lights.-like two trees in the woods so you won't go in a circle.I've dreamed a sailing (small sailboat) back to Tufi with my wife to show her those rocks.It's only ten thousand miles as the crow flies,& a sailboat does not follow a crow.In the October 20 typhoon the COMFORT (hospital ship) came through by the grace of God. Forty nurses that night were scared to death,but not one even let their helpless patient(s) know it.Seventy craft were lost that night,I am told. My quartermaster shouted,"The barometer has reached bottom & has risen a bit. Best to you... Harold Fultz." _Another friend from TULSA days Commander Myron Thomas,was on Admiral Calhoun's staff, & through Jack he made arrangements for his wife & son to be evacuated on Christmas Day.He appreciated all Jack did to help & wrote to me recently that except for confusion on the dock his wife & son had a good trip on the Lurline. "I well remember he booked my wife & son for the LURLINE on Christmas Day l94l & I didn't see them again until Christmas Day l943.He enjoyed the reputation of being a good shipmate & always willing to help a fellow officer or enlisted man-Myron Thomas." Commander Thomas wrote that when he was on Admiral Calhoun's staff (Commander Service Force) he knew what a difficult time Jack was having trying to provide transportation with so little available space. "He performed his task in a most creditable manner & then with his tact,careful planning,foresight & diplomacy in dealing with many anxious wives & husbands at this critical time was able to satisfy the majority of naval personnel who had to remain in the (war) zone & were anxious to get their dependents to the mainland." #78-#78B Thomas Jefferson School Waikiki l942-1946 #78B Thomas Jefferson School Hawaii I entered John in the public English Standard primary Thomas Jefferson School, Waikiki near the head of the Ala Wai Canal, where Ala Wai Boulevard intersects Kapahulu Street about five blocks east of our home near Kapiolani Park with its remarkable zoo & bird collection & Sunday band concerts.At that time in Hawaii there were two school systems. For those children who passed an exam in proficiency in English a very fine education was offered. We estimated a large majority of the pupils were of Asian backgrounds, with Japanese the largest group many exceptionally gifted & hard-working.Another gifted pupil was Robert Ho of a Shanghai background. His mother lived in Waikiki & was proficient at block printing.At least one student Sam was part Hawaiian, and the students knew and used common native Hawaiian words like the greeting "Aloha" kapu keep out - Pau finished-Mauka toward the mountains - Makai toward the water, & opu - stomach.The teachers were well qualified & in many cases had experience on the United States mainland.Three of John's teachers, were of Portuguese backgrounds, Mrs Celestine Silva Barbour in the first grade, who was our neighbor on Ohua Street, Celia Ponte of Kaimuki in the third grade,& Mrs. Silva in the fourth grade. In the fifth grade John's teacher Mrs. Agnes Davidson came from an old New England family - her names was Agnes Dee Mason before her marriage, & her ancestor Mason in l630 received the original royal charter as founder of the New Hampshire colony. One of her daughters was on the staff of Honolulu radio station KHON, and her son Douglas Davidson was a professional photographer who photographed her class in l946 at Valentine's Day & also did nature photography including Hawaii's major waterfalls.Mrs. Barbour the first grade teacher had an exceptionally warm & friendly personality.Her parents had come from Portugal & Madeira in l883 to work on sugar plantations at Kohala on the northwest coast of the "big" Island - Hawaii.She remembered seeing Queen Liliuokalani around l9l5 at the girls school she attended in Kaimuki.She remembered the musicologist Sigmund Spaeth "the tone sleuth" & other interesting visitors in Hawaii over many years.She had previously taught on the Islands of Hawaii & was later a high school principal - probably at Kamehameha school Honolulu.Her first grade classroom was a small cottage at the south tip of the long covered corridor with the first, second &third grade classrooms. An art classroom was next door.A large vegetable garden run by Mr. Chong was on the west side of the building & shared by the neighboring non-English standard Waikiki school. Crown flower plants hosting monarch butterflies grew between the classrooms & the garden & furnished material for science projects.John had been reading & writing for more than two years, but he was in the habit of printing all-capitals & had to learn to use the small letters also. There were hot lunches in the centrally located school cafeteria, where pupils took turns working under head cook Mrs. Billie. A small pomegranate grew at a little fishpond near the lunch room.In the dining & assembly area a Christmas show produced eight Christmas carols, including "Silent Night, Away in a Manger" &" Joy to the World" & relatively little-known "Love Came Down at Christmas Love our lovely love divine Love came down at Christmas Stars & angels Gave the Sign." Pupils acting as angels had to stand very still while the others sang the songs.Naps were required in rest period. In January l943 John was transferred to Mrs. Elsie Mattoon's second grade classroom, where the children were six months to a year older than John. Again the teaching was excellent..One day a week Mrs. Mattoon & the other second grade teacher Mrs. Fisher sent their pupils to the other teacher's room, & Mrs. Fisher read an interesting story titled,"Billy the Goat." John was sick a couple of sessions & never found out how the story turns. out. The children used to play on swings & seesaws & jungle-jims & play games like "Go in & out the window -as we have done before-Go skipping round the village- Go kneel before your partner..." Nancy Kawamura was frequently a leader in these games & songs.Rose Lee lived on the golf course across the Ala Wai Canal in front of our home, where her father was a caretaker.Her mother was deaf. Joseph Kinoshita, who became a Honolulu lawyer (& Air Force Reserve Judge Advocate) would often walk home with John along Ala Wai Boulevard after school. Sometimes he would stop at our house & practice wrestling on the front lawn (despite the crabgrass). Miss Celia Ponte was a conscientious & understanding third grade teacher with a large number of students in her classroom.She later became a school principal.During this time John was becoming more nearsighted & got glasses after testing at school & with Dr. Withington's encouragement.Janet Ikeda was an outstanding student in spelling bees & in races to answer arithmetic flash cards quickly.The other third grade teacher Mrs. Evans always wore a flower in her hair fresh every day & like to recite a poem about the Hawaii cup-of-gold flower "made for fairies to hide in."Mary Lou Gilares & other girls acted as Junior Police Officers "JPO's" holding STOP signs after school so that pupils could cross Kapahulu Street on the east ("Diamond Head") side.Students learned to sing a melodic rendition of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, "Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; of restricting the freedom of speech or of the press or the right of the people to petition the government for a redress of grievances. All of the fourth grade class voluntarily took religion classes once a week- our Ala Wai neighbor Mrs. McCarthy covered the Good Samaritan & other parables & the Golden Rule & Sermon on the Mount & managed to convey the joyous, charitable side of religion without getting hung up over doctrinal controversies. The librarian Miss Becker was friendly & popular & one book John discovered there was Richard Halliburton two travel books - the Wonder Books of Marvels. Sometimes pupils would be assigned to assist in the school office, answering telephones "Thomas Jefferson School- office monitor speaking"- ringing the bells at proper times & taking messages to teachers.It was an opportunity for the principal Mrs. Vance to get to know the students.She was actively involved in all phases of school life.North of the school buildings were softball fields & exercise bars for chinning & arms exercises.A very active Cub Scout pack met on the bleachers near the softball field under the leadership of scout master Mr. Paul Ishimoto, who later became a top official of the Honolulu Boy Scouts.At that time the official age for entering Cub Scouts was nine years, but John did a lot of the Cub achievement tests in early l945 before his ninth birthday in his fourth grade year, looking up family history & learning scout pledges & lessons. The group climbed Red Hill & went on other hikes.After the war ended l945-l946 some of the other pupils would ride with Jack & John to the waterfall on the Pali road & other sites.In the fourth grade Mrs. Martin was friendly & sometimes rode home with us in Waikiki, but she had health problems & left Honolulu around January l945. For one week Mrs. Jepson was a substitute - one day she explained a method of thinking in terms of "aliquot parts of the dollar." The spring of l945 Mrs. Silva was an effective, hard-working teacher who stressed arithmetic achievement. One day April l2, l945 in rest period news came President Roosevelt had died & students were sent home.In the fifth grade Agnes Davidson had students memorize many poems- "True worth is about being not seeming, Of doing each day that goes by Some little good - not in dreaming of great things to do by & bye. Oh better than the riches of a gold crowned king Is the heart-felt memory Of a lovely thing." Mrs. Davidson knew a great deal of American history. She had lived in Arizona & subscribed to the photo magazine "Arizona Highways".She lived west of us on Lewers Road, where we visited after she retired.She once saw John & me after school sitting at the north edge of the school grounds under monkeypods trees near Ala Wai Boulevard & sang, "Don't sit under the monkeypod tree with anybody else but me" - a Hawaiian adaptation of the current American hit, "Don't sit under the apple tree."(*Monkeypods are members of the Bean or Legume family in the mimosoid subfamily - also known as "rain trees" because leaves fold up when it rains.We used to see sixth grade teacher Mrs. Hazleton near her home on Kuhio Street not far from the school, where she sometimes gave us ripe mangoes from a tree in her yard. In l942 there was an art teacher, who passed away not long afterward at a young age, but usually the home classroom teachers supervised periods in the art room. Mrs. Harrison,Mrs. Barbour's first grade teacher was often friendly though John was not in her class - she worked with Mrs. Barbour on the l942 Christmas Pageant, which was very well done & a welcome contrast to the war tensions of Christmas l94l when schools were closed. Air raid drills were held in bomb shelters at school,& effectiveness of gas masks was tested in a room full of tear gas.


 

1412.
p 94-1412

 

Forks wrestlers prepare to travel to state tournament with coach Bob Wheeler. Kelly Banner was champion at his weight - Luke Larson was sixth. Justice Barnes and Michael Hirsh also qualified. Feb. 2000 ----April 22 Astronomy Professor David Latham has suggested that it will take a great deal of energy to achieve the ideal maximum amount of mass removal from the sun to keep the earth habitable as long as possible. However the time frame is very long. The basic equation is mv squared or m DELTA v squared, where m is the desired amount of mass removed, and Delta V is the difference between starting velocity and escape velocity. I believe that "m" the ideal amount of mass to remove over four or five billion years is not precisely known at present. The optimum rate of removal is likely to be a curve rather than a straight line. Too rapid a beginning might trigger an ice age or orbital instability of earth and planets. The longest-lived stars have 7.5 to eight per cent of the mass of the sun and are estimated to remain on Main Sequence with stable heat output about five thousand trillion years - [5 x 10 to twelfth power]. In atlas of the Universe 1998 I see as estimate that sun equals 333,000 earth masses. Suppose that in four billion years, it was desired to remove eighty per cent of present solar mass - this is very likely more than enough, but illustrates the nature of the calculation. This would mean if one proceeded in a linear fashion, that one per cent of solar mass should be eliminated in the first fifty million years, dividing four billion by eighty. So 3,330 earth masses would be removed in fifty million years, or 66.6 earth masses per one million years - around one earth mass every fifteen thousand years. The acceleration would be complex. I have heard the escape velocity at the surface of the sun estimated between 384 miles per second and 500 kilometers per second. However, the heat of the solar surface 5500 C and the much higher heat and convective motion just below the surface may contribute significantly to the starting energy as we come to understand how the existing solar wind forms and the stellar winds of other stars, including those hotter than the sun. For seven years I have been studying whether it would be possible to remove ANY mass from the sun. I call this stage "Leah" after the older first wife of the Biblical patriarch Jacob. Before we get to phase Leah, where we might experimentally try to remove a small amount of mass from the sun to observe technology, there would be phase "Blaise Pascal" where we would do thought experiments and test ideas theoretically. If the technology appeared risky, there might be a phase Alpha where we might test procedures on the star Alpha Centauri before working on the sun. As a target, perhaps an experimental small operation to remove a little mass from the sun might be targeted for the year 2099, within the lifetime of persons now living. David Latham has proposed the much more difficult and long -lasting PHASE RACHEL, in which the goal would be to achieve an optimum amount of gas removal to prolong habitability of earth to a theoretical maximum. Rachel was very beautiful, but her father was a demanding gentleman, and Jacob needed great patience and persistence. Since April 7, 2000 a number of possible technologies have come to mind, but they will require huge amounts of energy.Most of the technologies involve heating the solar surface to increase the amount of mass that escapes in the solar wind. At present it has been estimated about one hundred trillionth of solar mass escapes each year in naturally occurring solar wind. Hopefully, the sun's own energy can be utilized in one way or another.It is conceivable that over thousands and millions of years ways can be found to store energy from giant objects deep in space, and then beam or transport it Most technologies involve application of some form of heat to the solar surface. There may also be the possibilty of disrupting the surface chromosphere and exposing slightly deeper layers which are much hotter. In the order I have thought of them, these are techniques for warming the solar surface- locally or around the entire surface. [1] Lasers - possibly utilizing hydrogen from the sun itself for fusion power. [2] Reflectors or mirrors to aim the sun's own heat back at the surface. [3} A greenhouse gas - if one can be maintained stably in the lower corona, this would be the ultimate mirror or reflector. Extremely high million-degree C. temperatures occur in portions of the lower corona, and the forces that cause them are not completed known- very likely magnetism is involved. This strategy would take mass relatively uniformly from all areas of the surface. It would be desirable to remove mass from the polar regions of the sun, so that it would travel away from the orbit of the earth and other planets. [4] Disruption of the cooler chromosphere to expose hotter interior gas or plasma. [5] ANTI-MATTER- would be extremely effective annihiliating some of the sun's mass and generating astonishing heat if ANTIMATTER can be found, manufactured and handled and contained, as by very strong magnetic fields. There might be advantages in concentrating ther ANTIMATTER at very low temperatures near absolute zero possibly utilizing superconductivity to assist handling, which is far in the future [but Rachel is very beautiful].[6] collect energy from hot distant sources such as black holes, neutron stars, supernovas, giant stars and beam it to solar system [7] find nearby BROWN dwarfs believed to exist within a few light years of earth and utilize their hydrogen or intragalactic clouds for FUSION. The sun is presently about seventy-one per cent hydrogen, twenty-seven per cent helium, and two per cent heavier elements. The removal of helium probably would favor stability, but the helium tends to be concentrated near the core, as David Latham pointed out in 1995. Recently Sean Root of Port Angeles heard a broadcast on a TV history channel in which something was said about "helium bubbles" obrserved in sunspots. if this is true and if they can be targeted, a substantial amount of helium over a long time can be removed from the convective outer zone, which constitutes thirty per cent of solar radius and sixty-five per cent of volume. Doug Wadsworth of Port Angeles and Western Washington University at Bellinghan points out that if it is possible to reduce solar mass signifiantly, orbits of planets will be affected by reduced gravitational pull, and planets will move further from the sun. This will help delay or prevent over-heating the earth and may be of great long run importance. Effects on earth and future colonies on satellites of outer planets need careful calclulation [phase Blaise Pascal thought experiments].It appears likely a time will come when much of the world's population will move to satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Mars is very small. Colonies can be sent to distant space, but moving all person and animals and plants is much more difficult, but relevant to democratic planning and popular will. Someday it will be possible, but it is important to gain time by keeping earth habitable as long as possible. Thanks to David Latham, Philip Brown of www.historyoftheuniverse.com,Peter latham, Bohdan Paczynski, Gibor Basri for comments on various astrophysical topics, including halo and dark matter.


 

1413.
p 94-1413

 

Forks Girls baskballl team 1999-2000---Astron In June 2000 "Astronomy" magazine Astronews pp 24-26 Andrea Gianopoulos has 'solar update' Seeing Moss and the Whole Sun' TRANSITION REGION AND CORONAL EXPLORER 'spongelike features thgat resemble earthbound moss = clues to sharp temperature rise moving from photosphere surface to outer atmosphere [corona]. This occurs at base of high-pressure coronal loops in extremely active areas, in large bright patches six to twelve thousand miles across from a thousand and 2500 miles above photosphere - hot gas or plasma emitting in extreme ultraviolet. Bart De Pontieu of Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab says "These observations provide a glimpse -how the sun's magnetic field changes from a chaotic jumble at the photosphere to the well-organized magentic field present in coronal loops." Article also discusses how SOHO detects 'weather' on far side of sun. I am planning a list of "interesting" stars using Motz and Nathanson "Constellations" as a source and the Groombridge catalogue and looking for other references. Some items - very bright Wolf- Rayet starts, O and b stars - pre main sequence stars like T Tauri - clusters especially near ones like Hyades, Pleiades, Big Dipper, and new group in Hydra and the globular clusters which are very old and out in halo away from plane of galaxy - Population Two stars of which Groombridge 1830 is said to be nearest at 28 light years in Ursa Major.- nearby stars less that 30-50-75 light years - young stars including the star forming region in Orion trapezium - Theta Orionis - and some near ones in Taurus - variable stars especially RR Lyrae - very old and sometimes in globular clusters and bulge approaching supernova as are bigger, younger Cepheids including Polaris and Deneb - stars with high and low metallicity, high spin, lithium.This will be a long term project, but I call attention of David Latham, Doug Wadsworth, Sean Root. Correections and contributions appreciated. -John Barrett - Below are some notes mailly from the ?Constellations" text. Constellations Lloyd Motz Carol Nathanson 523.8903- Betelgeuse M0Ia. diam 920 sun.-550 puls 2070 days semireg he4+he4 = Be8. +he4 - - C12 + gam RIgel LEF LEG TRIPLE 150 S LUM bELLATRIX 5H 22' +6,18' MAG 1.64 saiph K ORIONIS sword color -.16 700 parsecs BO Ia. abs. mag -6.8 50,000 s lum. p.98 -eta handle ofsword Saif al jabbar close optical double eclipsing like b Lyrae. MINTAKA "the Belt" Delta Or 20,000 s. lum. 450 parsec 1500 ly. abs mag -6.0 col +.21 5.7 day eclipsing binary.Interstellar matter Mintaka's spectrum K lines on calcium in stars O5 to B3 Doppler. Alnilam epsilon string of pearls 45,000K B0 Ia color -.18 -abs mag -6.8 single star radial veloc 26.1 km/sec 500 parsecs 1630 ly 51 parsecs from Mintaka or 163 ly - Alnitak zeta girdle mag -6.2 O9.5 Ib col -21 s lum 35,000 - 1600 ly 500 parsec moving away from "Belt stars -TRAPEZIUM Theta-1 theta open cluser popul I stars p 282 Cygnus V444 Cygni 20 h 17.7' +38,34' nne of P ygni Wolf-Rayet 17 million miles from O four day period.--few hundred WR abs mag -4 to -8 60000 - 100,000 surf temp K radii about twice sun V444 4900 ly-- Wr 18 solar masses 1450 lum 2.3 s radius. He++ C N O Si ions gas shell expanding inner 3 x rad s-thin outer 8 times radius I SUPERGIANTS a bright b faint II BRIGHT GIANT III NORMAL GIANTS IV subGIANTS V Main Sequence and DWARFS - sun VI - SUBDWARF Hyades 130 Light y WC7 Regor gamma velorum nearest Wolf-Rayet 520 ly 8h 8' -47,12' double primary 3900 s. lum- O7 giant close invisible companion. Zeta Puppis 60,000 s. lum 2400 ly mag +2.25 8h 2' -39,52' -- Hadar open cluster-- NGC 2477 WN or WC 900 ly spectrum.--p. 227 RR Lyrae .50-.65 solar [mass?] mag. +.3 to +.6 last 80 M yr. Population two stars. TRIPLE ALPHA PROCESS Core burns helium shell burns hydrogen.CANIS MAJOR ETA ALUDRA 55,000 s.lum B supergiant ZETA FURUD blue white DWARF 750 s.lum-- DELTA-WEZEN 60,000 s.lum mag + 1.82 late F SUPERG [? W?GHT] El ADHARA "Virgins' [Delta,Eta, Omicron] Omicron 3400 ly reddish compare to Rigel


 

1414.
p 94-1414

 

Forks High boys Basketball team 2000 Southwest Washington League champs ASTRONOMY O6 lambda cephei --B 3 Eta Aurigae -- A0 Delta CYGNI G2 Eta PEGASI Rigel B8 Ia 12,000 k -7 magnitude .01 g/cc. CANOPUS F supergiant distance?? 600-1152 ly. 10,500 s.lum? ETA CARINAE -11 magnitude million s. lum. - CRAB neb TAURUS 3500 ly-- Hyades receding toward Betelgeuse.-- T PYXIDIS or Nova PYXIDIS 1920 9h2.6' -32,11' type O ---April 22 Astronomy Professor David Latham has suggested that it will take a great deal of energy to achieve the ideal maximum amount of mass removal from the sun to keep the earth habitable as long as possible. However the time frame is very long. The basic equation is mv squared or m DELTA v squared, where m is the desired amount of mass removed, and Delta V is the difference between starting velocity and escape velocity. I believe that "m" the ideal amount of mass to remove over four or five billion years is not precisely known at present. The optimum rate of removal is likely to be a curve rather than a straight line. Too rapid a beginning might trigger an ice age or orbital instability of earth and planets. The longest-lived stars have 7.5 to eight per cent of the mass of the sun and are estimated to remain on Main Sequence with stable heat output about five thousand trillion years - [5 x 10 to twelfth power]. In atlas of the Universe 1998 I see as estimate that sun equals 333,000 earth masses. Suppose that in four billion years, it was desired to remove eighty per cent of present solar mass - this is very likely more than enough, but illustrates the nature of the calculation. This would mean if one proceeded in a linear fashion, that one per cent of solar mass should be eliminated in the first fifty million years, dividing four billion by eighty. So 3,330 earth masses would be removed in fifty million years, or 66.6 earth masses per one million years - around one earth mass every fifteen thousand years. The acceleration would be complex. I have heard the escape velocity at the surface of the sun estimated between 384 miles per second and 500 kilometers per second. However, the heat of the solar surface 5500 C and the much higher heat and convective motion just below the surface may contribute significantly to the starting energy as we come to understand how the existing solar wind forms and the stellar winds of other stars, including those hotter than the sun. For seven years I have been studying whether it would be possible to remove ANY mass from the sun. I call this stage "Leah" after the older first wife of the Biblical patriarch Jacob. Before we get to phase Leah, where we might experimentally try to remove a small amount of mass from the sun to observe technology, there would be phase "Blaise Pascal" where we would do thought experiments and test ideas theoretically. If the technology appeared risky, there might be a phase Alpha where we might test procedures on the star Alpha Centauri before working on the sun. As a target, perhaps an experimental small operation to remove a little mass from the sun might be targeted for the year 2099, within the lifetime of persons now living. David Latham has proposed the much more difficult and long -lasting PHASE RACHEL, in which the goal would be to achieve an optimum amount of gas removal to prolong habitability of earth to a theoretical maximum. Rachel was very beautiful, but her father was a demanding gentleman, and Jacob needed great patience and persistence. Since April 7, 2000 a number of possible technologies have come to mind, but they will require huge amounts of energy.Most of the technologies involve heating the solar surface to increase the amount of mass that escapes in the solar wind. At present it has been estimated about one hundred trillionth of solar mass escapes each year in naturally occurring solar wind. Hopefully, the sun's own energy can be utilized in one way or another.It is conceivable that over thousands and millions of years ways can be found to store energy from giant objects deep in space, and then beam or transport it Most technologies involve application of some form of heat to the solar surface. There may also be the possibilty of disrupting the surface chromosphere and exposing slightly deeper layers which are much hotter. In the order I have thought of them, these are techniques for warming the solar surface- locally or around the entire surface. [1] Lasers - possibly utilizing hydrogen from the sun itself for fusion power. [2] Reflectors or mirrors to aim the sun's own heat back at the surface. [3} A greenhouse gas - if one can be maintained stably in the lower corona, this would be the ultimate mirror or reflector. Extremely high million-degree C. temperatures occur in portions of the lower corona, and the forces that cause them are not completed known- very likely magnetism is involved. This strategy would take mass relatively uniformly from all areas of the surface. It would be desirable to remove mass from the polar regions of the sun, so that it would travel away from the orbit of the earth and other planets. [4] Disruption of the cooler chromosphere to expose hotter interior gas or plasma. [5] ANTI-MATTER- would be extremely effective annihiliating some of the sun's mass and generating astonishing heat if ANTIMATTER can be found, manufactured and handled and contained, as by very strong magnetic fields. There might be advantages in concentrating ther ANTIMATTER at very low temperatures near absolute zero possibly utilizing superconductivity to assist handling, which is far in the future [but Rachel is very beautiful].[6] collect energy from hot distant sources such as black holes, neutron stars, supernovas, giant stars and beam it to solar system [7] find nearby BROWN dwarfs believed to exist within a few light years of earth and utilize their hydrogen or intragalactic clouds for FUSION. The sun is presently about seventy-one per cent hydrogen, twenty-seven per cent helium, and two per cent heavier elements. The removal of helium probably would favor stability, but the helium tends to be concentrated near the core, as David Latham pointed out in 1995. Recently Sean Root of Port Angeles heard a broadcast on a TV history channel in which something was said about "helium bubbles" obrserved in sunspots. if this is true and if they can be targeted, a substantial amount of helium over a long time can be removed from the convective outer zone, which constitutes thirty per cent of solar radius and sixty-five per cent of volume. Doug Wadsworth of Port Angeles and Western Washington University at Bellinghan points out that if it is possible to reduce solar mass signifiantly, orbits of planets will be affected by reduced gravitational pull, and planets will move further from the sun. This will help delay or prevent over-heating the earth and may be of great long run importance. Effects on earth and future colonies on satellites of outer planets need careful calclulation [phase Blaise Pascal thought experiments].It appears likely a time will come when much of the world's population will move to satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Mars is very small. Colonies can be sent to distant space, but moving all person and animals and plants is much more difficult, but relevant to democratic planning and popular will. Someday it will be possible, but it is important to gain time by keeping earth habitable as long as possible. Thanks to David Latham, Philip Brown of www.historyoftheuniverse.com,Peter latham, Bohdan Paczynski, Gibor Basri for comments on various astrophysical topics, including halo and dark matter.


 

1415.
p 94-1415

 

Forks families with recent graduates at the Forks High School - in center Bruce and Linda Thomas - on left and right Dr. Bob Henry and Edith - at Art on the Hill reception. Shawn and Lindsey Thomas are at Washington State University Pullman WA -brother Brian works in Seattle. Trevor Henry is studying TV production at Montanan State in Bozeman.Astron In June 2000 "Astronomy" magazine Astronews pp 24-26 Andrea Gianopoulos has 'solar update' Seeing Moss and the Whole Sun' TRANSITION REGION AND CORONAL EXPLORER 'spongelike features thgat resemble earthbound moss = clues to sharp temperature rise moving from photosphere surface to outer atmosphere [corona]. This occurs at base of high-pressure coronal loops in extremely active areas, in large bright patches six to twelve thousand miles across from a thousand and 2500 miles above photosphere - hot gas or plasma emitting in extreme ultraviolet. Bart De Pontieu of Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab says "These observations provide a glimpse -how the sun's magnetic field changes from a chaotic jumble at the photosphere to the well-organized magentic field present in coronal loops." Article also discusses how SOHO detects 'weather' on far side of sun. I am planning a list of "interesting" stars using Motz and Nathanson "Constellations" as a source and the Groombridge catalogue and looking for other references. Some items - very bright Wolf- Rayet starts, O and b stars - pre main sequence stars like T Tauri - clusters especially near ones like Hyades, Pleiades, Big Dipper, and new group in Hydra and the globular clusters which are very old and out in halo away from plane of galaxy - Population Two stars of which Groombridge 1830 is said to be nearest at 28 light years in Ursa Major.- nearby stars less that 30-50-75 light years - young stars including the star forming region in Orion trapezium - Theta Orionis - and some near ones in Taurus - variable stars especially RR Lyrae - very old and sometimes in globular clusters and bulge approaching supernova as are bigger, younger Cepheids including Polaris and Deneb - stars with high and low metallicity, high spin, lithium.This will be a long term project, but I call attention of David Latham, Doug Wadsworth, Sean Root. Correections and contributions appreciated. -John Barrett - Below are some notes mailly from the ?Constellations" text. Constellations Lloyd Motz Carol Nathanson 523.8903- Betelgeuse M0Ia. diam 920 sun.-550 puls 2070 days semireg he4+he4 = Be8. +he4 - - C12 + gam RIgel LEF LEG TRIPLE 150 S LUM bELLATRIX 5H 22' +6,18' MAG 1.64 saiph K ORIONIS sword color -.16 700 parsecs BO Ia. abs. mag -6.8 50,000 s lum. p.98 -eta handle ofsword Saif al jabbar close optical double eclipsing like b Lyrae. MINTAKA "the Belt" Delta Or 20,000 s. lum. 450 parsec 1500 ly. abs mag -6.0 col +.21 5.7 day eclipsing binary.Interstellar matter Mintaka's spectrum K lines on calcium in stars O5 to B3 Doppler. Alnilam epsilon string of pearls 45,000K B0 Ia color -.18 -abs mag -6.8 single star radial veloc 26.1 km/sec 500 parsecs 1630 ly 51 parsecs from Mintaka or 163 ly - Alnitak zeta girdle mag -6.2 O9.5 Ib col -21 s lum 35,000 - 1600 ly 500 parsec moving away from "Belt stars -TRAPEZIUM Theta-1 theta open cluser popul I stars p 282 Cygnus V444 Cygni 20 h 17.7' +38,34' nne of P ygni Wolf-Rayet 17 million miles from O four day period.--few hundred WR abs mag -4 to -8 60000 - 100,000 surf temp K radii about twice sun V444 4900 ly-- Wr 18 solar masses 1450 lum 2.3 s radius. He++ C N O Si ions gas shell expanding inner 3 x rad s-thin outer 8 times radius I SUPERGIANTS a bright b faint II BRIGHT GIANT III NORMAL GIANTS IV subGIANTS V Main Sequence and DWARFS - sun VI - SUBDWARF Hyades 130 Light y WC7 Regor gamma velorum nearest Wolf-Rayet 520 ly 8h 8' -47,12' double primary 3900 s. lum- O7 giant close invisible companion. Zeta Puppis 60,000 s. lum 2400 ly mag +2.25 8h 2' -39,52' -- Hadar open cluster-- NGC 2477 WN or WC 900 ly spectrum.--p. 227 RR Lyrae .50-.65 solar [mass?] mag. +.3 to +.6 last 80 M yr. Population two stars. TRIPLE ALPHA PROCESS Core burns helium shell burns hydrogen.CANIS MAJOR ETA ALUDRA 55,000 s.lum B supergiant ZETA FURUD blue white DWARF 750 s.lum-- DELTA-WEZEN 60,000 s.lum mag + 1.82 late F SUPERG [? W?GHT] El ADHARA "Virgins' [Delta,Eta, Omicron] Omicron 3400 ly reddish compare to Rigel


 

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John Barrett 1994 notes on firefighters tragedy in Colorado 1994--Astron In June 2000 "Astronomy" magazine Astronews pp 24-26 Andrea Gianopoulos has 'solar update' Seeing Moss and the Whole Sun' TRANSITION REGION AND CORONAL EXPLORER 'spongelike features thgat resemble earthbound moss = clues to sharp temperature rise moving from photosphere surface to outer atmosphere [corona]. This occurs at base of high-pressure coronal loops in extremely active areas, in large bright patches six to twelve thousand miles across from a thousand and 2500 miles above photosphere - hot gas or plasma emitting in extreme ultraviolet. Bart De Pontieu of Lockheed-Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab says "These observations provide a glimpse -how the sun's magnetic field changes from a chaotic jumble at the photosphere to the well-organized magentic field present in coronal loops." Article also discusses how SOHO detects 'weather' on far side of sun. I am planning a list of "interesting" stars using Motz and Nathanson "Constellations" as a source and the Groombridge catalogue and looking for other references. Some items - very bright Wolf- Rayet starts, O and b stars - pre main sequence stars like T Tauri - clusters especially near ones like Hyades, Pleiades, Big Dipper, and new group in Hydra and the globular clusters which are very old and out in halo away from plane of galaxy - Population Two stars of which Groombridge 1830 is said to be nearest at 28 light years in Ursa Major.- nearby stars less that 30-50-75 light years - young stars including the star forming region in Orion trapezium - Theta Orionis - and some near ones in Taurus - variable stars especially RR Lyrae - very old and sometimes in globular clusters and bulge approaching supernova as are bigger, younger Cepheids including Polaris and Deneb - stars with high and low metallicity, high spin, lithium.This will be a long term project, but I call attention of David Latham, Doug Wadsworth, Sean Root. Correections and contributions appreciated. -John Barrett - Below are some notes mailly from the ?Constellations" text. Constellations Lloyd Motz Carol Nathanson 523.8903- Betelgeuse M0Ia. diam 920 sun.-550 puls 2070 days semireg he4+he4 = Be8. +he4 - - C12 + gam RIgel LEF LEG TRIPLE 150 S LUM bELLATRIX 5H 22' +6,18' MAG 1.64 saiph K ORIONIS sword color -.16 700 parsecs BO Ia. abs. mag -6.8 50,000 s lum. p.98 -eta handle ofsword Saif al jabbar close optical double eclipsing like b Lyrae. MINTAKA "the Belt" Delta Or 20,000 s. lum. 450 parsec 1500 ly. abs mag -6.0 col +.21 5.7 day eclipsing binary.Interstellar matter Mintaka's spectrum K lines on calcium in stars O5 to B3 Doppler. Alnilam epsilon string of pearls 45,000K B0 Ia color -.18 -abs mag -6.8 single star radial veloc 26.1 km/sec 500 parsecs 1630 ly 51 parsecs from Mintaka or 163 ly - Alnitak zeta girdle mag -6.2 O9.5 Ib col -21 s lum 35,000 - 1600 ly 500 parsec moving away from "Belt stars -TRAPEZIUM Theta-1 theta open cluser popul I stars p 282 Cygnus V444 Cygni 20 h 17.7' +38,34' nne of P ygni Wolf-Rayet 17 million miles from O four day period.--few hundred WR abs mag -4 to -8 60000 - 100,000 surf temp K radii about twice sun V444 4900 ly-- Wr 18 solar masses 1450 lum 2.3 s radius. He++ C N O Si ions gas shell expanding inner 3 x rad s-thin outer 8 times radius I SUPERGIANTS a bright b faint II BRIGHT GIANT III NORMAL GIANTS IV subGIANTS V Main Sequence and DWARFS - sun VI - SUBDWARF Hyades 130 Light y receding toward Betelgeuse WC7 Regor gamma velorum nearest Wolf-Rayet 520 ly 8h 8' -47,12' double primary 3900 s. lum- O7 giant close invisible companion. Zeta Puppis 60,000 s. lum 2400 ly mag +2.25 8h 2' -39,52' -- Hadar open cluster-- NGC 2477 WN or WC 900 ly spectrum.--p. 227 RR Lyrae .50-.65 solar [mass?] mag. +.3 to +.6 last 80 M yr. Population two stars. TRIPLE ALPHA PROCESS Core burns helium shell burns hydrogen.CANIS MAJOR ETA ALUDRA 55,000 s.lum B supergiant ZETA FURUD blue white DWARF 750 s.lum-- DELTA-WEZEN 60,000 s.lum mag + 1.82 late F SUPERG [? W?GHT] El ADHARA "Virgins' [Delta,Eta, Omicron] Omicron 3400 ly reddish compare to Rigel ++ ASTRONOMY O6 lambda cephei --B 3 Eta Aurigae -- A0 Delta CYGNI G2 Eta PEGASI Rigel B8 Ia 12,000 k -7 magnitude .01 g/cc. CANOPUS F supergiant distance?? 600-1152 ly. 10,500 s.lum? ETA CARINAE -11 magnitude million s. lum. - CRAB neb TAURUS 3500 ly-- Hyades receding toward Betelgeuse.-- T PYXIDIS or Nova PYXIDIS 1920 9h2.6' -32,11' type O ---


 

 

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